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English Lecture for Silver University

Cat: LAN
Pub:2024
#2402d89

compiled by Kanzo Kobayashi

up 24221
Key

; 5 sentence pat

 

terns 70; Adverbs of degree 94; Alice in Worderland 160; Ancient Japanese 100.1; Antonym 40.4a; Array oriented language 70.1; A spoonful sugar 140.3; A - The - ⌀ 90; Basic verbs 100; Be+to infinitive 70.4b; Bible related terms 97; Causative verb 70.8; Cliche on debate 95.2; Consonant pronunciation 60.2; Debate in English 14.4; Devil's Dictionary 100.8; Dictionaries 20.2; Difference UK & US 92; Different nuance verbs 80; Dinasar in UN 110; Discusstion on travels 13.9; Diphthong centering 50.8; Diphthong upward 50.7; Encountering new words 40.2; English brain 20; English dictionaries 20.2; English history 30; English Jokes 100.5; Enlgish tenses 70.1; Features of English sentence 20.4; Five sentence patterns 70; Foreign cities stayed 11.4; Four confusing vowels 50.4 ; Four situations in travels 13.2; Future expression 70.4; Haiku in English 103.2; Intransitive & Transitive verbs 70.7; Juxtapostion 102.2; Learning incentives 40; Let's go fly a kite 140.4; Lingua franca; Long sentence 93; Main theme 12; Mary Poppins story 1964, 140; Meaning of Subjunctive 80.6; Metaphor 10.4; Monophthong 50.5; My background 11; Native pronunciatio 60.6; Narrow road to Oku 20.6; Negative Form 95.1; Negative Expression 95.1b; Nuance of verbs 80; Oxymoron 102.4; Pale Blue Dot 110.2; Parindrome 102.5; Past auxiliary verbs 91; Past & PP forms 70.5; Perceptual verb 80; Place of articulation 60.2; Pluto 110.3; Politeness 91.1; Prep-For-With 101.4; Prep-In-Out 101.2; Prep-On-Off 101; Prep-Up-Down 101.6; Prep Time recognition 102; Present & PP forms 70.4; Phonetic code 50.2; Phonetic symbols 50; Phonetics 60.7; Preposition 101; Purpose of travels 13.6; Relative pronoun 80.4; Segmentation of basic verbs 100; Sentence pattern-V 70.2; Sequence of tenses 70.6; Shohei Ohtani News 170; Some & Any 90.2; Songs 150; Starting expression 95; State verb & Active verb 80.1; Stay hungry 110.1; Subjunctive mood 80.5; Supercali...docious 140.1; Supercali...docious Lyrics 140.2; Sustainable tourism 13.8; To-Infinitive 80.2; Tongue twisters 60.9; Travelogue 14.2; Travel verbs 14; Trip don't forget list 13.4 ; Usage of if 80.9; Usage of basic verbs 100.2; Usage of it 96; Usage of that 90.4; Various phases of travels 13; Verb tenses 70.3; Vowels confusing 50.4; Why English grammar 11.3; Without if 80.8; ;

 

>Top 10. Index:

1

誰でもできる英会話の旅と交渉 (目次)

English Conversation Journey and Negotiaiton Anyone Can Do (Index)

 
  1. 目次:自己紹介;滞在地一覧
  2. 旅と5W1H:旅のCheck List
  3. 旅の特徴:英語脳英語の辞書
  4. 旅の記録;旅日記英語の特徴日英比較
 
 
  1. 発音記号母音子音発音変化早口言葉
  2. 5文型時制時制一致使役動詞知覚動詞
  3. 仮定法不定詞関係代名詞
  4. a/the; 前置詞
  5. 英米表現の違い;
  6. 副詞;出だし表現;it;諺;語源;常套句;慣用句;
  7. セット単語; 回文
 
 
  1. 英会話の肝:
  2. ホテル: 食事;観光;買い物
  3. 訪問地:
    1. アフリカ; Egypt pyramid; Tanzania safari park
    2. カナダ: Canadian Rocky National Parks
    3. 米国: Boston Fenwey Park;
    4. 欧州: Switzerland; Amsterdam
    5. 豪州NZ: Sydney star watching; Perth Mt. Newman; New Zealand
    6. 中東: Saudi Arabia sand dune;
    7. アジア: China great wall;
  4. 交渉術:トラブル;否定表現
 
 
  1. UNDP 環境問題
  2. IT
  3. 宇宙: James Webb
  4. The story of Mary Poppins; the longest word
    1. Supercalifraglistic expialidocious
    2. A spoonful sugar
    3. Feed the birds
    4. Let's go fly a kite
 
  1. Green green home
  2. Candle in the Win
  3. Please Mr. Please
 

 

>Top 11. My background:

2

Resume (経歴, 特に外国語中心に)

 
  1. 学校:
    1. 品川区立平塚小学校・ローマ字→品川区立荏原第六中学校・英文タイプ→都立日比谷高校・受験英語
    2. 東京大学理科Ⅱ類→理学部地学科:ロシア語・中国語・地質学の卒論は英語
  2. 会社での実践学習:
    1. 伊藤忠商事㈱ (金属部門→エネルギー部門):スペイン語、フランス語、海外出張
    2. Agip Nucleare Pty Ltd. (豪州; 海外出向): 豪州英語 (日本人ひとり)
    3. Saudi Arabia駐在員:中東英語;アラビア語(入門)、ビジネスは英
    4. 伊藤忠商事㈱ (情報通信):Silicon Valley、TV-Japan (NY):米国英語
      • Harvard Business School (PMD研修):BostonでのNative英語授業
 
  1. 英語ディベート実践:
    1. 国際大学Global Communication Center:  研究員・英語でのICT関連議論
  2. ICTと英語:
    1. NECソフト㈱:OSS/Linux、コンピュータ関連英語
    2. ICT経営パートナーズ協会:ガイドライン知識体系の英語翻訳・紹介
  3. 講義実績:
    1. JICA沖縄: 海外青年IT研修:英語での授業・沖縄各地訪問
    2. 琉球大学、ICU、南山大学、東工大大学院等で講義
  4. 英語での情報発信:
    HP作成:ほとんど趣味:http://park12.wakwak.com/~kobakan/
 
 

>Top 11.2 Foreign cities stayed:

3

Foreign Cities Visited and Stayed (滞在した海外都市)

>HBS  

>Top 11.3 Why study English Grammar?:

 

>Top 11.4 How to learn English grammer practically:

4

英語文法をいかに飽きずに実践的に学ぶか:

英文法項目

目的

参照項目

英語の歴史 英語は、ノルマン諸語、ラテン語、フランス語など外国語の侵入による言語の変遷の歴史がある。その多様性が、世界語として発展することになったのではないか。 English History 30
世界語英語 英語使用分布など世界語としての英語の役割を意識してbeing globalになろう。 Lingua Franca 30.2
文型 英文5文型とその例文。これは英文法として学ぶ基本中の基本。よくできた説明。 Five sentence patterns 70
第5文型 特に最後の第V文型を詳述してみた。これは5文型の中のボスキャラである。この第V文型が相手を意識した知覚動詞や使役動詞など基本動詞が頻出する。 Sentence Pattern-V 70.2
自動詞と他動詞 文型I/IIは自動詞、III/IV/Vは他動詞だが、人間のコミュニティの発展と共に他動詞が多様化してきた。格変化(助詞)のない英語はどうやって使い分けているのか。 Intransitive Verb vs. Tramsitive Ver 70.7
動詞の時制 過去の出来事も時制と法(mood)を組み合わせて多様な表現が可能となる English Tenses 70.1; Tenses of Verbs 70.3
過去形と現在進行形 時制だけでなく、法(mood)によって話者の心的状況を表す。似て非なる使い方 Past form vs. Present pefect form 70.5
発音

言葉は音である。多用な音をどうやって26しかないAlphabetに当てはめて使えるようになったのか。限りある喉や下や口蓋や歯や鼻を活用してどうやって区別できる音を出しているのか。

Place of Articulation 60;
Four confusing vowels 50.4

発音記号

母音は20、子音は24もある。もしアルファベットが44文字あれば、一字一音で表記できたのに。

Phonetic Symbols 50;
Phonetic Code 50.2
間違えやすい母音 英語に母音が20もある。でもそれは口や舌を精一杯使ってだしている音なのである。同じ器官をもつならばできないことはないはず。

Confusing Vowels 60.4;
Diphtongs Upward 50.7
;
Diphthongs Centering 50.8

子音の発音 発音は、唇、舌の位置、美音の有無、有声音と無声音の違いによる。種類は多いが、母音の微妙が変化に比べれば、そう難しくはないはず。 Consonant Pronunciation 60.2
スペルと発音 ひらがなもカタカナもない英語の子どもたちはどうやって発音とスペルの組み合わせを学んでいるのか。Phoneticsとはそのための強化者である。 Phonetics 60.7
大母音推移 英語のスペルと発音の違いは、ラテン語・フランス語の語彙導入に起源がある。原則を重視する学者と利便性を求める民衆。そして活版印刷がその違いを固定してしまった。 The Great Vowel Shift 607b
奇妙なスペルリスト 英語Nativeも正確なスペルには苦労しているはず。奇妙な間違えやすいスペル一覧 Strange Spelling List 60.7c
強形と弱形の発音 どうでもいい時(弱音)とここぞという時(強形)では、かなり発音が変化する。 Strong & Weak form pronunciation 60.8
ネイティブの発音 だれでも自国語は早口で話しているように聞こえる。それでも間違えなく通じている。 Native Pronunciation 60.6
早口言葉 Nativeにも苦手な発音の組み合わせはあり。子どもたちはこれを繰り返しながら発音を訓練しているのかも。 Tongue Twisters 60.9
未来形 英語には未来形がないと言われるが、それ故、さまざまな単語の駆使して未来表現が可能 Future Expression 70.4
be+to不定詞 未来の予定・義務・可能などを表すbe+to表現に注目してみた。To不定詞の源流かも。 be+to Infinitive 70.4b
To 不定詞 to不定詞は、時制にとらわれない自由な動詞のあり方。原形がその役割だったのが、現在形と区別ためにto不定詞となったのかも。それ故原形不定詞が頻出語に現れる。 To-infinitive 80.2
時制の一致 日本語にはない時制の一致の意味。その例外も含めて。 Sequence of Tenses 70.6
関係代名詞 長い描写をするには関係代名詞は不可欠。単に連結するだけでなくその構造が現れる Relative pronoun 80.4
thatの用法 万能接着剤のthatによって、時間を稼いで、うまく文章を繰り出していく Usage of that 90.4
SomeとAny 英語は数の概念が厳格ではあるが、曖昧な表現も必要である。 Some vs. Any 90.2
副詞 副詞はおまけのような単語だが、社会生活では重要な役割がある。副詞一つで相手への配慮と影響力が変わる Adverbs of degree 94
否定形

交渉に否定はつきもの。いかにうまくを否定を表現し相手に納得してもらうか。

Negative Form 95.1
助動詞の過去形 助動詞の過去形は、心理的に距離をとることで丁寧表現などが可能になる。 Past Auxiliary Verbs 91
前置詞 前置詞は小粒ながらその位置や方向性を定める。対比して覚えるのがよい。 Preposition on-off 101; for-to 101.4; up-down 101.6;
前置きと時間認識

前置詞一つで、時間区分が変わってくる。時間の流れを前置詞という杭で区別するのかと思われる

Preposition & Time recognition 102
長い文章 接続詞や前置詞や進行形や分詞など多用して、列車のように長い文章に連結させる方法で、それが大人の会話・文書である。 How make long sentences 93
仮定法

仮定法こそ想像力豊かな大人の表現。仮定法によって未来をさまざ予測することも役立つ。想定する範囲をなるべく広くすることは、パニックに陥らない方法である。
仮定法によってニュアンスも変わり、気持ちの伝え方が異なる。
但し、表現がやや長くなるのは欠点だと、それを補って余るメリットがある。

Indicative & Subjunctive mood 80.5 ;
Meaning of Sujunctive Mood 80.6
; Differnt way of expressing feeling 80.7 ;
ifの用法 Ifは仮定法で多く現れるが、それ以外にも緩和表現などで相手が断りにくい表現にする

Without if 80.8;
Usage of 'if' 80.9

丁寧表現 依頼・要求・許可など様々な場面で丁寧な表現で必要となる。言葉一つで、うまく解決できることも多い。丁寧で、柔らかな表現。前置き表現や緩和する表現を学ぶ。 Politeness 91.1
語源 単語を覚えるには語源を共通する単語を覚える方が近道。英単語も、漢字の部首と応用のルーツがある。 Common words of Etymology 103
反意語 単語は意味の対照的なセットで覚えるのがよい。反対の単語を意識しながら一方を使っているのだから。 Antonym 40.4a; 40.4b; 40.4c
基本動詞 動詞は数限りなくあるが、それぞれ基本動詞が基になって発達してきた。beとhave, getとgive はそれらの基本である。 Basic Verbs 100
基本動詞の用法 基本動詞を辞書でじっくり読むと実に多用である。辞書の価値は例文の選定にある。 Usage of Basic Verbs 100.2
古文の基本動詞 基本動詞は短い。日本の古文も同様である。英語と古文は意外と親和性がある。 Basic Verbs of Ancient Japanese 100.1
英語で俳句 五七五と季語のある日本語のイメージをどう英語で表現するか。英語でも微妙なニュアンスを端的に表現したいこともあるので、これは日本人が大いに貢献できる分野 English Haiku 103.2
知覚動詞 知覚動詞は第V文型で登場する。他人との関わりでは、他人の状況をつぶさに観察し描写することも大事で、この第V文型に登場するのは意味がある。 Perceptual Verb & Pattern-V 70.9
使役動詞 知覚動詞も第V文型で登場する。他人との関わりでは使役動詞も不可欠。いろいろ他人に手伝ってもらうと人生が明るくなる。 Causative Verb 70.8
状態動詞・動作動詞 同じ動詞でも状態の動作の両義の動詞があり、この区分は明確でないが役に立つ State Verbs & Action Verbs 80.1
決まり文句のit

itを制する人は英語を制すると言われるが、この小さな一寸法師的なitの多用な表現

Usage of it 96
英語の辞書 英語の辞書は優れているものが多い。日本の英和辞書も格段に進歩してきた。もっとも内容が豊富で安価な読み物である。枕にしておくにはもったいない。 English Dictionaries 20.2
英語と米語 英語は本家なので、本家からすると勝手に(いい加減に)言葉を変化させるのは許せないという心理状況がある。その比較と応酬合戦は、Non-nativeからしても興味深い。車の用語など典型。車を発達させたのは米国だが、英国は馬車の長い歴史がある。 Brintish English vs. American English 92
英語脳 よく言われるが彼我の言語それほどの違いはない。但し、こつこつ付き合うしかない。古い家族の間の関係のように。 English Brain 20
旅と交渉

旅と交渉は密接な関係がある。場所を移動し、人と交じり、さまざな出来事が発生する。旅は人生そのものと比喩されるのも一理ある。旅を活用し、リアルな場面での言葉を体験しよう。
交渉にはそのプロセスがある。相手との違いをどう認識し、互いに認め合うことによって無駄な紛争がトラブルの拡大を防ぐ。これは外交やビジネスだけでなく私的関係においても重要。

The Narro Road to Oku 20.6;
Various Phases of Travels 13;
Four situations in travels 13.2;
TRIP Don't Foregt list 13.4;
Purpose of Travels 13.6; Sustainable Tourism 13.8
Travelogue -Tavel Verbs 14;

聖書関連用語 キリスト教など宗教関連用語は、今でも演説やIT分野などでも利用されている。 The Bible related terms 97
隠喩など どの言語にも隠喩等は多い。言葉のイメージを"〜のように"と形容することで拡大しているのではないか Metaphor & Simil, etc. 102.1
並置 (X・Y)と2つの語が並ぶ場合の意味は。これも格変化のない英語の変化の賜物 Jaxtaposition 102.2
矛盾語法 一見矛盾するような単語を組み合わせ新たな次元へ意味の拡張。open-secretみたいに Oxymoron 102.4
回文 ご存知"たけやぶやけた"の英語版。子音を多用する英語の方が回文作成に苦労しそう。 Palindrome 102.5
出だし表現 何事にもスタートダッシュが重要。いつものように確実なスタートダッシュ表現を。 Staring Expression 95
 討論用語 ディベートはどうやって行うのか。HBSでのよく使われた表現を参考に。 Cliche on Debate 95.2
学習する動機 趣味・必要性・趣味拡大などあるが、人と交流するのが好きな人には言葉は欠かせない。山登りと同様に、その奥深さに気づいた時、それは果てしない吸引力を占める。

Learning Incentives 40 ;
Encountering New Words 40.2

英会話例文編

旅行での各場面での例文を集めた。海外では案内文も注意書きも生きた英語の例文にあふれている。緊急の時の会話は、余裕はないだろうが、ぜひ参考にしたい。

Key conversations in travel 105
名演説編 一世風靡した短い名演説を取り上げる。YouTubeにもNative narrationがついている。 The dinosaur in UN 110;
Steve Jobs 110.1;
The Pale Blue dot 110.2;
Mary Poppins 英国伝統の素敵な魔法使いのNannyの話。誰もが彼女との再会を願っている。 The story of Mary Poppins 140;
Supercalifragilistic...docious 140.1
名曲編 言語は音であり、歌詞は詩であり、音楽はリズムである。この3つは繋がっている。 Green Green Grass of Home 150;

 

>Top 11.5 Travel, Travail, & Trouble:

5

Travel, Travail, and Trouble (旅に交渉はつきもの)

 
  1. Travelのいろいろ:
    1. Trip: 短い旅行; a day trip; round trip
    2. Tour: 計画的な視察・観光旅行; sightseeing tour
    3. Journey: (陸路の)長い力; In a long journey straw weighs.
    4. Voyage: 船・空による長い旅行; Voyager I/II
    5. Travel 旅 (a variant of travail);
      1. Travail (L. trepalium =instrument of torture; tes=thress + palus =stake) 労苦
      2. Trouble (<L. turbidus <turbid=disturbance)の語源的にも共通点ある!
  2. 海外で英語を使っての旅には交渉はつきもの
    1. 計画段階〜予約実行〜予約変更・確認〜旅の実行〜想定外発生〜トラブル発生〜肝心な時に通じない〜お土産購入〜無事帰国・御礼状発想〜旅の思い出・記録の整理〜忘れ物対策〜反省を踏まえて次の計画へ
    2. 交渉が伴う会話にはよく考えて、失敗・トラブルを拡大しないことが重要。
    3. 自分で解決できない場合は、周囲に助けてもらう。
    4. 依頼は丁寧に、80%の達成で満足し、小さなトラブルは飲み込む。焦ったりイライラするとトラブルは増幅する。
    5. 交渉に必要な表現は、日常生活でも役立つ。英語のPoliteness表現 (後述)は役立つ。
    6. こまめなメモとレシート、名刺、地図、写真など記録は、トラブル解決に役立つ。
    7. Negotiateの語源 <L. negotiatus; neg-ない+otium暇+ate状態にする; 交渉は暇ではない。
      状況判断、報連相、心の余裕
    8. 旅の保険は必須
  旅に現れる5W1H
  1. Who:  =He that travels far knows much. ; Merry companion is a wagon in the way. [Étranger]
  2. What: =Experience in English culture & language. [好奇心]
  3. Why:  =Finding interest or significant places & events.  [遍路]
  4. When:=Discovery of different time; Make hay while the sun shines. [吉日]
  5. Where:=Encountering marvellous nature & people. [邂逅]
  6. How:  =Managing a maze of the foreign country. [迷路]

>Top 12. Theme:

6

Main Theme (シルバー大学うるおい塾)

 
  1. 感謝 Appreciation; 興味 Interest; 工夫 Plan; 健康 Health; 好奇心 Search
    甘言 Flattery; 狂気 Craziness; 苦悩 Suffering; 嫌悪 Hatred; 混乱 Mess
  2. 旅のいろいろ: trip 短期; travel 長距離・外国・観光; journey 長期の道のり; tour 視察・周遊; excursion; 団体旅行; voyage 船旅
  3. つながる対話:
    1. 旅は想定外のことがよく起こる。新たな出会い・発見・遭遇を
      余裕をもって(楽しく)対応していく
    2. 5W1Hを想定した会話を発揮するチャンス
    3. 旅の前準備〜実行〜後整理の想定文を作成; 旅の後には良い文章が書ける (古来、旅日記多い)
    4. 交渉は対話の応用編:
      1. 旅で発生するさまざまな出来事、トラブル、事故に適切に対応
      2. キーワードを速く、明確に伝える。
        1. ¶ emergency; accident; ambulance; fire;
        2. ¶ illness; sickness; disease; disorder; chronic – acute; (feel like ) vomiting; high fever; heart attack; head/stomach/teeth ache; bruise; sprain; Achílles’ tendon; fracture; bleeding
        3. ¶ fake; cheating; fraud
        4. ¶ pickpocket; thief; robber; mugger; burglar (housebreaker)
 

 

>Top 13. Various Phases of Travels:

7

Various Phases of Travels (旅のいろいろ)

  • ♠語源
  • ♣語法
  • ♥注目
  • ♦熟語
  • ¶用例
  • ■区分
  • *注
  1. Various type of travels
    1. Trip: 短い旅行  a day trip; round trip
    2. Tour: 計画的な視察・観光旅行 a sightseeing tour
    3. Journey: (陸路の)長い力 In a long journey straw weighs.
    4. Voyage: 船・空による長い旅行 Voyager I/II
  2. 5W1H and Negotiaions occur during travel:
    1. Who:  =One who travels far knows much.; Merry companion is a wagon in the way. [Étranger]
    2. What: =Experince in English culture & language. [好奇心]
    3. Why:  =Finding interest or significant places & events.  [遍路]
    4. When:=Discovery of different time; Make hay* while the sun shines. [吉日; *hay=fodder]
    5. Where:=Encountering marvellous nature & people. [邂逅]
    6. How:  =Managing a maze* of the foreign country. [*迷路: network path designed as a puzzle]
    7. ♠Negotiate: <L. negotiatus; neg-ない+otium暇+ate状態にする
  3. Various travels: "Everyone can enjoy English conversation during travel and can challenge negotiations."
    1. Various kinds of travels:
      1. Trip (<skip, hop)= a short journey
      2. Travel (<travail) = a journey of some length
      3. Journey (<a day’s travel) = rather a long journey
      4. Tour: (<turn) = a circular travel
      5. Excursion (<ex- +currer, run) = a short trip
      6. Voyage (<via_ticum, travel) = a long journey by sea or in space
    2. Try to talk meaningful and connected conversations.
      1. Respond to new encounters, discoveries with some allowances and fun.
      2. When speaking, keep in mind to mention Who, When, Where,  What, Why and How (5W1H).
      3. Prepare sentences you anticipate for before, during, and after the traveling.
    3. Willing to negotiation (<neg-, not_otium, leisure)
      1. Respond appropriatedly to various events, problems, or accidents which occur on the travel.
      2. Speak key words quickly and clearly, in case of emergency (accident, illness, lost property, cheating, pickpocket, etc.)
 
 

>Top 13.2 Four Situations in Travels:

8

Four Situations in Travels (旅で遭遇する4状況)

 

  1. ♠ Questions 質問; Requests 依頼; Pursuits追求; Instructions 指示
    1. Could you reserve a table for three people for tonight?
    2. I’d like to reconfirm my reservation for tomorrow’s flight 003.
    3. I’d like to cancel the item I purchased yesterday.
    4. I’d like to try on these three clothes. Where is the fitting room.
    5. I’d like to consider purchasing it if the price is reduced a little more.
    6. I’m confused about the color of this item. If I buy both, is there any further discount?
    7. I’ve asked for this many times, but it hasn’t been done yet. What’s going on?
    8. I wish you would stop making that noise.
  2. ♣ Options 選択肢; Counterproposals 対案; Reconsideration 再検討; Suspension 保留
    1. Are there any products with similar functions at a lower price?
    2. The product is very attractive, but it doesn’t fit my budget, so I can’t decide right away.
    3. I want that item, but I’d like to discuss it with my husband, so could you please keep it until tomorrow?
    4. I’ll be checking out tomorrow morning, so if you can complete by then, I’d like to request it.
  3. ♥ Trust 信用; Good luck 幸運; Acceptance 是認; Appreciation 感謝
    1. Thank you for your appropriate advice. It was very helpful for me
    2. I’m very lucky to have received such a wonderful invitation from you today.
    3. I’m happy that I was able to buy a good seat in front of me because it suddenly got canceled.
    4. I’m lucky to be able to purchase this last remaining item at a special discount.
    5. Actually we have a lot of trouble, but I appreciate your kind support.
  4. ♦ Caution 注意; Reference 参考; Reflection 反省; Lessons 教訓
    1. My wallet that I left here was stolen. I should have been more careful.
    2. I should have researched more when purchasing this item.
      1. When I opened it at the hotel, I found that it was scratched.
    3. I should have taken action with more time, I was in a hurry because I didn’t have time, so I just bought it as instructed without really looking into the contents.
    4. I should have asked for payment at the taximeter before departure. I didn’t expect to be charged such a high fee.
 

 

>Top 13.4 TRIP Don't foreget list:

9

TRIP Don't Forget list (備忘録リスト)

 
  1. To make trip Timely & Rapidly
    1. Itineray
    2. Watch
    3. Key materials: Purse, Phone, Map, IPad, Note, Key
  2. Necessary Resources:
    1. Health
      1. Medicine
      2. Shave, Cosmetics, Sanitary products
      3. Shoes
      4. Credit card (for health insurance)
    2. ★Money
  3. To make trip Impressive & enjoyable: Flexible
    1. Glases, Camera, Binoculars
    2. Notebook, Pen, Pencil
    3. Guide book
    4. Books, Dictionary

 
  1. To prepare travel Processes
    1. ★Airticket, Seat reservation, Packing baggages; Return flight confirmation
    2. ★Passport (Visa)
    3. Hotel reservation
    4. Appoint confirmation
    5. Various certificate (Health, Invitation letter, etc.)
    6. Insurance
    7. Exchanged currency
    8. ID card, Driver licence
    9. Convenient items: Clothing bag; Refill cables & batteries; Voltage convertor; Souvenir list; Lucky items
 
 

>Top 13.6 Purpose of Travels:

10

Purpose of Travels: (旅の目的)

Ten Reasons Why People Love to Travel

  1. Challenging yourself 自己への挑戦: new experience, étranger
  2. Learning through experience 体験を通じた学習: someting specific, language, cuisine, culture,
  3. Expanding your perspective 視野の拡大: wider world view, being global, having open mind; appreciating your life (No place like home.)
  4. Building relationship 関係の構築: making new friends, connecting each other, creating wider horizon of communication
  5. Having adventure 冒険旅行: physical experience; doing something different; finding best souvenir
    [souvenir <L. subvenire =occur to the mind]
  6. Escaping and Healing 逃れと癒やし: a great relief from stress and unhappiness
  7. Relaxing without thinking 無我のリラックス: vacation <L. vacare=left empty; recharge your battery; sightseeing, cuisine
  8. Celebrating anniversary 記念旅行: graduation, wedding, various anniversary, shared memories
  9. Finding and cofrimaing business: visiting the sites, getting information, understanding partners & market
  10. No particular reasons 特段理由無し: because I'd go there; because there is a mountain there.
    ["Why did you want to climb Mt. Everest ? -Because it's there" George Mallory, Everest mountaineer, lastly climbed in 1924]
 
 

>Top 13.8 Sustainable Tourism:

11

Sustainable Tourism

  minimizes the harm and works to improve the natural and cultural environments:
  1. Light & ecological packing:
    1. Pack lightly: it makes traveling easier, and most cost effective. The heavier an aircraft, the more fuel it consumes, and the more carbon emissions are released into the atmosphere.
    2. Wear natural fibers: Cotton in particular is very breathable, therefore it doesn’t retain odors, and needs less washing.
    3. Bring reusable bags: like a few canvas totes so don’t end up using a million plastic bags.
    4. Travel locally and by land when you can: Try to walk or bike! Public transportation is also a great option.
    5. Support the local economy: Be sure to hit up local street and farmers markets and try all the locally-sourced seasonal foods.
    6. Respect natural and cultural sites: Whenever you go, you want to be respectful to people and the different cultures you may encounter. Get to know the people living there, and learn some key words if they speak a different language.                      
  2. Ecotourism: focus on ecological conservation
  3. Dark tourism (or Grief tourism): travel to places historically associated with death and tragedy.
 
 

>Top 13.9 Discussion on travels:

12

Discussion on travels: It's fan to talk about travel:

 
  1. Could you mention the best place where you have visited abroad and its reason why?
    1. I recommend to visit a National Safari Park in Tanzania, where we can observe wild animals such as elephants, lions, giraffes, hippos, crocodiles in their natural stage. It is not the animals that is in the cage, but the humans who observe them from cage of the car.
    2. All the recommendations are the stories of the daytime. The night constellations, particularly in the southern hemisphere are special and there is no admission fee. I want to find The Southern Cross, and the nearest star Centaurus α.
    3. Seas in the Southern Hemisphere are also attractive. I recommend the Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland of Australia. You will marvel at the world largest coral reef. But don’t forget to visit some Koala parks in Queensland, where you can hold a lovely Koala.
  2. Could you mention the best place where you have visited abroad and its reason why?
    1. I think the best place is Switzerland. Everywhere in the country looks like a postcard; glaciers, Alps mountains, green meadows, fairy-tale cottages surrounded by seasonal flowers. It is like a story of Alpine Girl Heidi.
    2. I like Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks, whose scale is much bigger than Switzerland. Also there are many beautiful lakes scattered along seven national parks, each has its own mysterious appearance and color.
    3. I like New Zealand, where we could visit beautiful lakes among mountains. Mt. Cook, the highest peak and surrounding glaciers are very impressive. Various alpine plants are in bloom on the hiking course at the foot of the mountain.
    4. I recommend the Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland of Australia. You will marvel at the world largest coral reef. But don’t forget to visit some Koala parks in Queensland, where you can embrace a real Koala. By the way, you might thingk you're buying a stffed koala toy, but its fur is actually Kangaroo's one, and mostly made in China.
 
 

>Top 14. Travelogue - Travel Verbs:

13

Travelogue - Travel Verbs (旅日記 - 旅の動詞)

 
 
>Top 14.2 Travelogue:

Travelogue (旅日記)

 
  1. It was a sunny – no wind perfect day, best for the sightseeing. I’ve heard the beauty of Sydney harbour; which was really a great cruise, just as I had heard its reputation from my friend.
  2. Also, the lunch called charcuteries (which seems French) was delicious.
  3. Besides, I took a nice photo of Opera House, probably the best one in the year, which will appear as my next Christmas Card.
  4. At a nice harbourfront restaurant at the Rocks, I ate a long-awaited T-bone steak, but I couldn’t eat it all because it was too big for me. And I ordered raw oysters, which tasted better than expected
  5. I had planned to buy a map of Australia with the south facing upwards as a good souvenir, but in vain.  I’ll try to look for it again next time.
  6. Today’s schedule is not over yet. In the night, I’ll look up at the sky and try to find the Southern Cross.
 
 

>Top 14.4 Debate in English

14

Debate in English (英語的な議論)

 
  1. 議論をする場合の要領:
    1. 議論をする場合、相手に対する礼を失してはならない (日英共通)。相互に敬意を表しつつ
      ルールの基づく意見交換をする。(口頭の議論でも書面でも同じ)
    2. 相手の論拠、反対意見を認めない一方的な主張は独善(self-rightous)であり、避けるべき
    3. 一方で、双方に非がありどっちもどっちという根拠を示さない曖昧な(ambiguous)妥協も避けるべき。
    4. 議論する以上は、相手の意見も評価して可能な限り取り入れ、かつこちら側の意見の主張と理由を明確にして伝え、その結果双方の同意点と相違点 (pros & cons)を明確にしつつ、妥協点を探る。
    5. 変更を後で通知するより、議論を通じてConsensusを追求する方が、相互信頼を助長する。
    6. (妥協点のシナリオ、内部調整は事前に種々想定しておくことが重要。)
  2. 起・承・転・(理由)・結を明確にする。(I・II・UNTS・TFMAM・C)
    1. : Intoruction:  Today’s discussion point is that…
    2. : It is true that.. In fact, there is such events that …
    3. : However, we can confirm that …It is Nevertheless truth…Even Though you don’t admit it, but  we must do it. …Still we have an opportunity to recover …
    4. 理由: Therefore, it is a reasonable decision that...  Furthermore…Moreover… And… Most important thing for both of us….
    5. : Conclusion: Base on the above discussion, I’d like to draw the following conclusions at this stage. What do you think?
 
 

>Top 20. English Brain:

15

English Brain (英語脳)

着目点

理由

対策

英語的回路

語順(SVO)・文法・単語

英語だけの(翻訳しない)思考回路

日本語挿入

えーと、何だっけ、いいかな?

詰まったらむしろ無音

結論が先

まず結論、それから理由・状況

まず結論、その理由を具体的に

積極姿勢

英語を通した世界への展望

新たな着想・概念の広がり

ことば遊び

英語的風刺・洒落・余裕

おもしろさ・おかしさの拡大

多様性の価値

相違・比較による視野拡大

新たな発想や気付き・反省

経済的価値

市場が大きいので安価

英語は長持ちでお得な文化

ランダム学習

科学のような段階学習は不要

興味のあるものからアラカルト

好奇心から

好奇心>経験>記憶力の順

好奇心のあるシニアは有利

塊やリズム

単語や文法の細部へのこだわり

表現パターン・リズムの繰り返し

発音・発言

楽譜勉強だけでは演奏できない

英語を発信できる神経回路の強化

 

>Top 20.2 English Dictionaries:

16

English Dictionaries (英語の辞書)

辞書

特徴

特徴

最新版でなくても十分

小学館Progressive英和中辞典
2版/4版

語源○
バランス◎

一般的な標準辞書

必要十分な内容で読みやすい。
簡略語源あり。5文型が充実

大修館Genius英和辞典4版/5版

鮮度◎
詳細△

一般的だがかなり詳細

改訂版頻度多く、新語充実。
語義の発展図わかりやすい。

大修館Practical Genius 英和辞典 (教育用Active Genius英和もよい) 教育的◎ 高校生向け基礎重視。大人も十分有用 例文がわかりやすい。
基礎単語に詳しい。

三省堂Wisdom英和辞典

見易さ◎
語源なし✕

一般的でまとまり良い

語法がわかりやすい。見やすい。語源なし。


研究社Luminous英和辞典2版

文法◎
句動詞◯

見やすい英和辞典
基本語が詳しい

例文が実用的。句動詞が枠で囲って充実。発音解説図付きで詳しい。

研究社CompassRose英和辞典1版 (Luminousの進化版)

基礎重視◎
バランス◯

一般的な標準辞書 研究社として権威復活の良い辞書;
語根の共通語や丁寧表現、文法解説。
発音解説図付きで詳しい。
旺文社OLEX英和辞典2版

基礎重視◎
会話重視◯

親しみやすい辞書 実用的な例文が豊富。語法など実践的な記述が多い

研究社College英英辞典

英英◯

読みやすい英英辞典

一部日本語付き英英でわかりやすい

 

Z会ワードパワー英英和辞典

網羅性✕

Oxford Wordpowerの翻訳

読む辞典の役割、内容は浅い。

  Oxford Dictionary of English Oxford◯ 英国の権威辞書
Thesaurum辞書もよい
英語の権威辞書
Macに標準装備はすばらしい
  Cambridge Idioms Dictionary Cambridge 英国のIdiom専門辞書 英語のIdiomに詳しい。種々発見
  American Heritage Dictionary American Heritage 米国の権威辞書

米語の権威辞典
MacOS10.15以上必要

 

Idiomatic & Syntactic Eng.D.

鮮度✕

Hornbyの有名な英英辞書’(だった)

1967年版改訂がないのが残念
文型は独特だが細か過ぎ

研究社英和活用辞典

語法◎

用例が専門用語含め一番充実

英作文用で詳細に調べる場合
重たいのが難点

 

岩波大英和辞典

鮮度✕

小ぶりな大辞典

権威ある執筆者を結集した名著
英語の歴史・語源など冒頭参考

 

小学館Random House英和大辞典

権威◎
詳細○

一番くわしい英和大辞典

34万語収録で専門語も収録
調べるには最適だが重たすぎる

Wikipediaなど

Net無料◎

専門用語チェック

ネット上で検索で情報最新

Glosbe 各国語辞書 https://glosbe.com/ Net無料◎ 各国語の比較用 Esperanto, Spanish, Chineseなど
 

研究社英語語源辞典

語源専門◎
やや專門的△

語源を詳細チェック

詳しく語源調査用。単語も豊富。

 

三省堂英語諺辞典

やや専門的△

英語諺を詳細チェック

諺を詳しく背景までの調査用

三省堂Wisdom和英辞典

解説◯
文型◎

一般的でまとまり良い

用例が実用的、文型が日本人向け充実

  • 英語の辞書比較; 最近は英和中辞典が、改訂頻度も多く充実。 ; 最新版である必要はない; 例文は右表印の辞書5冊を参照すれば大体十分
>Herrmann model

>Top 20.4 Featurese of English Sentence

17

Features of English Sentence: (英語の特徴)

 
  1. 英語は配置の言葉: [→語順は助詞の役割]
    1. SVOなど5文型。→語形変化ほぼなし。助詞なし
  2. 時制の使い分け [→時の流れを意識して]:
    1. とくに現在と現在完了形 (=現在に影響している過去の出来事)の使い分け
    2. 助動詞過去形: would/could/might/shouldの多様な意味
      (可能・願望・婉曲・丁寧・仮定)
  3. 文章の連結 [→文章はつなげて長く]
    1. 名詞を修飾: 形容詞・形容詞句
    2. 動詞を修飾: 副詞・副詞句)は前から後からも
    3. 2文を連結: 接続詞の他に、関係詞や仮定法も
  4. 発音 [→発音はかたまりで短く]:
    1. 母音20、子音24→Alphabetは26文字→表記と発音が異なる)
    2. 発音の変化: 省略化・変化(弱化→ə音化)、連続化、寸止め
      I am going to school→I’m gəin’ tə school →I’m gənə school.
    3. get up→gétə(p); good idea→gudaidíə; make up again →méikəpəgén
  5. 小さな単語の役割大 [→短い単語は重要で多様]:
    1. 冠詞 (a/the)や前置詞 at/by/for/in/of/on/toなどの用法
    2. ifの用法
 
 

>Top 20.6 The Narrow Road to Oku:

18

The Narrow Road to Oku

by Donal Keene "The Narrow Road to Oku" translated by Donald Keene
  1. The months and days are the travellers of eternity.
    The years that come and go are also voyagers.
  2. Those who float away their lives on ships or who grow old leading horses are forever journeying,
    and their homes are wherever their travels take them.
  3. Many of the men of old died on the road, and I too for years past have been stirred by the sight of a solitary cloud drifting with the wind to ceaseless thoughts of roaming.
  4. 月日は百代の過客にして、行きかふ年もまた旅人なり。
  5. 舟の上に生涯を浮かべ、馬の口とらへて老いを迎ふる者は、日日旅にして旅をすみかとす。
  6. 古人も多く旅に死せるあり。予もいづれの年よりか、片雲の風に誘はれて、漂泊の思ひやまず…
  • 松尾芭蕉 (1644-94) 1689に江戸を立ち、奥州への旅を行った。; 時間・空間の旅; 旅の笠は最小の芭蕉庵
  • 最期の句: 旅に病んで夢は枯野をかけ廻る
  • >HP Road to Oku
>Translation terms

>Top 30. English History:

19

English History (英語の歴史)

  Where was English born?
  1. Old English (OE 古英語) 450〜1100:
    1. 409 ローマ帝国Britania放棄(Celtic tribe)。4〜6世紀Germanic tribes
       (Anglo-Saxon, Jutes) 大移動; Heptarchy建国
    2. 597: Augustine ローマ教皇の命でキリスト教伝導; 8C頃, Beowulf [béiəwulf] 英雄の叙事詩
    3. .800 - 1050北欧Viking Ageノルマン(Danes tribe)人の侵略 (Plagueと並んで脅威)
    4. 871 -899 Alfred the Great大王, Wessex王, Vikingの侵攻を防ぎ、OEを普及
    5. 1066: Norman Conquest; William I, the Conqueror (Guillaume, Normandy公, 母語は仏語)
      f.man, father, mother, son, daughter, brother, sisterはOE。名詞・冠詞: 男性・中性・女性が格変化
  2. Middle English (ME 中英語): 1100〜1500:
    1. 支配階級は仏語。大量の仏語語彙が流入 (person, human, aunt, uncle, cousin)、ロマンス語化
    2. Geoffrey Chaucer [tʃɔ́ːsər] 1343 -1400, The father of English poetry, MEで物語執筆
    3. 英仏百年戦争 1337 -1453; 英語の意識が高まる (inkhorn terms排斥) 1384 Wycliffe 最初の英語聖書
 
  1. Modern English (ModE 近代英語) 1500〜1700:
    1. 英国ルネサンスは16-17世紀の人間中心の分化。ギリシア語・ラテン語の流入 bill, money, judge, duke
    2. William Shakespeare, 1564 -1616); Bard of Avon, Myriad-minded, 英国ルネサンス演劇の代表者
    3. 1599 スペインの無敵艦隊打破 (Invincible Armada)。植民地の拡大 (1600 East India Co.設立)
  2. Late Modern English (LModE 後期近代英語): 1700〜1900:
    1. 1815 -1914 Pax Britannica, Imperial Century (Waterloo – WWI)
    2. 1819-1902 Queen Victoria、63年間治世, 帝国主義政策
  3. Present English (PE 現代英語):
    1. WWI (1918-), or WWII(1945-): Pax Americana:
    2. UN/EU公用語の一つ; 1993 Global Standard:
  4. Roots of English names: Patronymic 父祖の名に因む (<L. pater=father+onuma=name)
    1. 北欧系: Anderson, Johnson, Stevenson
    2. OE系: Browining      ……«Patronymic»
    3. Celt系: Macdonald, Macknezie, Macintosh
    4. 仏系: Fitzgerald, Fitzhugh, Fitzroy
 
 

>Top 30.2 Lingua Franca - English:

20

Lingua Franca - English (世界語 - 英語)

 
  1. English is most widely spoken in the world.  →See the graphs!
    EU – United in Diversity - spends more than one billion euros per year ensuring translation and interpretation of 24 languages to preserve multiligualism.
    Back in 1958, at the time of the Common Market (the seed of the EU), Dutch, French, German and Italian became official languages.
  2. English is one of the EU’s 24 official languages. Though the EU provides important information on policies in all its official languages, the Commission only has three working languages: English, French, and German. After the post-Brexit in 2019, just about one percent of the population speaks it as native language.
  3. A recent survey of Eurobarometer confirmed that German is the leading mother
    tongue in the EU (18%). English and Italian are on the second rank (13%).
    The picture changes if the foreign language skills come into play. Here English prevails with 38% of the European citizens.
  4. According to Eurostat, just over 85% of students in high school in the EU in 2015 studied English as a foreign language. In comparison, under 20% of students were studying either French or German.
 
  1. While English will likely remain the EU’s lingua franca for the foreseeable future, the language could undergo some unusual changes once it’s no longer under the watchful eye of the British.  Language experts note a slight different variation of English – known as “Euro-English” – is already spoken within the EU. Without the British, Euro-English could finally be free to flourish.
>Daily words in 8 lan.

>Top 40. Learning Incentives:

21

Learning Incentives (学習する動機)

区分

 若者世代

シニア世代

動機 試験、資格 趣味、必要性、視野拡大、経済的、創造的?
記憶方式 直前丸暗記 (短期記憶) 意味・興味による記憶 (エピソード記憶)、過去の記憶からの連想
教材 指定教科書、参考書、網羅的だが深くはない、興味・知識とのギャップ

生活・友人等からの刺激。書物・ネット情報・広告等、接触頻度、応用環境を積極的に求めること可能

学習レベル 簡易→難解へと段階的・体系的に学習 内容選択は興味次第。順番・体系より興味・実用本位
仲間 クラスなど集団学習、競争相手 主として独習。家族・友人を巻き込むと効果的
費用 授業料、学習塾など親に依存 自費ゆえ安価追求。英語の文献は無料or安価が多い
経験・記憶 過去の経験・記憶は少なく、初見が多い 過去の経験は多い。かすかな記憶やトラウマあるが、連想などで思い出すことが多い
他人の目 評判・評価を気にする 気にならない。知られるもより、一人楽しみも可能
アドバイス 段階的学習、傾向と対策 分散・適宜・ランダムで興味やおいしい所だけ。精神的健康に良い。
情報発信 会話、発表、試験、日記 友人・家族との会話、日記居、Homepage
関連語学 第二外国語なし、授業縦割り 第二外国語等との比較、古文・各国歴史との比較
IT活用 ノート、単語帳、SNS

Touch typingは特に有効、Spell check、ネット辞書・翻訳の活用

     
     
 

>Top 40.2. Encountering New Words:

22

Encountering New Words (新しい単語との出会い)

着目点

単語の場合

人物の場合

短期記憶 数秒間着目 (イメージを掴む) 数秒間着目 (第一印象)
役割・位置 品詞、語順、文型 役職・役割・席順
メモ 単語帳、アンダーライン 名刺 (氏名・役職)、出身等
外形的特徴 スペル (頭文字、長さ) 身体、表情、衣服等
内容・背景

英和・英英・語源・用例

意見の特徴、背景、評判
既知との比較 既知単語との相違・比較、反意語を意識 前任者との相違・比較、正反対の気づき
再会の時 再会頻度、前回想起 前回面談時の思い出を想起、共有
印象 文脈との関係、再会の機会 再会の場面、再会の可能性
長期記憶 使用 (読み書き)の頻度 会話・通信の頻度
覚え方 丸暗記より理屈と関連性とヒント 相手との関係性の奇遇と関わりと展開
  • 新単語を覚えることは、ビジネスでの名刺交換に相似; 相手の経歴・特徴などを印象として意識
  • 名前を反復、今後の交流の可能性; 既存の人との類似・比較・正反対

>Top 40.4a: Antonym-1

23

Antonym-1 (反意語-1) 単語はセットで覚える

  1. abandon – retain: 捨てる – 保持する
    1. I abandoned my car and walked the rest of the way home.
    2. I retain a special interest in history.
  2. abound – rich: 富む – 欠く
    1. This river is abound in fish.
    2. He lacks common sense.
  3. admire – despise: 称賛する –  軽蔑する
    1. I stopped and admired the beautiful view.
    2. I despise to buy only luxuries.
  4. aid – hinder: 助ける – 邪魔する
    1. I aided her in dressing.
    2. The heavy rain hindered trafic.
  5. arrive – depart: 到着する – 出発する
    1. We arrived in London from Tokyo.
    2. Our train departs from Paris at 9:00.
  6. blame – praise: 非難する – ほめる
    1. Who can blame him?
    2. Everybody praises the Beatles as the greatest rock group.
  7. clever – clumsy: 器用な – 不器用な
    1. She is clever at making pretty things.
    2. He is so clumsy as to spill the wine.
  8. complex – simple: 複雑な - 単純な
    1. The highways in NY are too complex.
    2. Please write here in simple English?
  9. damage – gain: 損害 – 利益
    1. The shop has suffered serious damage from the accident.
    2. The euro gained against the yen again.
  10. delay – quicken: 遅らせる - 早める
    1. We should delay our trip for a week.
    2. We had better quicken our walking pace.
  11. either – neither: どちらか - どちらもだめ
    1. Is either ticket available?
    2. Neither of the books has been sold out.
  12. entire – partial: 全体の – 部分の
    1. My daughter orders the dishes entirely.
    2. She could make a partial recovery.
  13. external – internal: 外部の- 内部の
    1. Press 0 first for external calls.
    2. I suffered internal injuries in the accident.
  14. firm – unsteady: 安定した –不安定な
    1. The yen stays firm against dollar in these days.
      You look rather unsteady on your feet.
  15. grasp – loose: 握る – ゆるめる
    1. She grasped at the change to go to abroad.
    2. This shirt is too loose for me.
  1. grave – trivial: 重大な – ささいな
    1. The grave situation has developed in that area.
    2. The problem seems trivial.
  2. harsh – smooth: ざらざらした – 滑らかな
    1. This towel is harsh to the touch.
    2. Her skin is smooth as silk..
  3. hate – love: 憎む – 愛する
    1. Never hate your enemies. It affects your judgement. [Godfather]
    2. I have a love of Italian food.
  4. helpful – useless: 役立つ- 無用な
    1. Your advice is always helpful to me.
    2. This English dictionary is useless to beginners.
  5. hire – rent: 賃借り (英) – 賃貸し (米)
    1. Can I hire a boat?
    2. We’d better rent a car in Los Angeles.
  6. hit – miss: 当たる–取り逃がす
    1. I hit my head on the door.
    2. You shouldn’t miss that movie.
  7. hope – despair: 希望する – 絶望する
    1. yI hope it will be fine tomorrow.
    2. I despaired of finding the lost jewel.
  8. follow – lead: ついて行く – 導く
    1. Follow along this road, then you can arrive there.
    2. I led an old woman across the street.
  9. forget – remember: 忘れる – 覚えている
    1. Don’t forget to meet me at the station.
    2. I can’t remember his name.
  10. frequently – rarely: しばしば–  稀に
    1. I frequently come to this park.
    2. I rarely go to the opera house these years.
  11. gain – lose: 得る – 失う
    1. My watch gains by one minute a week.
    2. We lost the 10:30 bus.
  12. general – particular: 一般的な – 特別な
    1. This season generally has many sunny days.
    2. I left my wallet at home on that particular day.
  13. gentle – rude: やさしい – 乱暴な
    1. Koalas are thought to be gentle animals, but sometimes they aren’t.
    2. It’s rude of you to come in without knocking.
  14. glad – sorry: 喜んで – 残念な
    1. I’m glad to see you again.
    2. I’m sorry that he is ill.
 

>Top 40.4b: Antonym-2

24

Antonym-2 (反意語-2)

  1. hurt – heal: 傷つける– 癒やす
    1. She fell down and hurt herself.
    2. Some injuries heal quickly, some slowly.
  2. ignoble – noble: 下品な – 上品な
    1. It’s an ignoble act to neglect the queue.
    2. She looks like a lady of noble birth.
  3. ignorant – learned: 無学の –  学のある
    1. We were all ignorant what happened then.
    2. The guide was learned for her age.
  4. include – exclude: 含む – 除外する
    1. Does this amount include service charges?
    2. This dressing excludes garlic.
  5. increase – decrease: 増やす– 減らす
    1. I feel like my weight has increased a little during this travel.
    2. It would be better to decrease the amount of food.
  6. inferior – superior: 劣った– 優れた
    1. This dress is far inferior in quality to that.
    2. This wine is superior in quality to any other wine.
  7. innocent – guilty: 罪のない – 罪のある
    1. We are innocent bystanders of this accident.
    2. He is guilty of a breach of the law.
  8. join – separate: 結合する – 分ける
    1. I’d like to join the party later.
    2. I got separated from my friend when the crowd pushed forward.
  9. junior –senior: 年少の – 年上の
    1. She is my junior by five years.
    2. My husband is my senior by three years.
  10. keen – dull: 鋭い– 鈍い
    1. I was so keen about the plan, and forgot to ask how much it would cost.
    2. It was a really dull movie.
  11. lament – rejoice: 悲しむ – 喜ぶ
    1. I lament the loss of my friend.
    2. She rejoiced to hear his success.
  12. lend – borrow: 無料で貸す – 無料で借りる
    1. Can you lend me your bicycle?
    2. May I borrow your pen?
  13. magnificent – shabby: 立派な–みすぼらしい
    1. Mountains looked magnificent, covered by snow.
    2. The restaurant looks a little shabby.
  14. material – spiritual: 物質的な– 精神的な
    1. The materials must be carefully chosen.
    2. I felt a kind of spiritual healing at church.
  1. medium – extreme: 中間の– 極端な
    1. For me, I like the meat to be medium-rare.
    2. To see the aurora, you need extreme cold protection.
  2. meet – part: 会う – 別れる
    1. I’d like to meet you at the hotel at 6:00 pm.
    2. We parted each other at the railway station.
  3. military – civil: 軍の –  民間の
    1. We couldn’t enter the military reserved area.
    2. She’s one of the most experienced civil servant.
  4. modern – ancient: 現代の – 古代の
    1. That is a fashionably modern building.
    2. The pyramid is the largest ancient historical structure.
  5. moist – dry: 湿った– 減らす
    1. Could you bring me a moist towel?
    2. We experienced a very dry Australian summer.
  6. naked – clothed: 裸の– 着物を着た
    1. Please wait a moment. I’m half naked.
    2. I was not appropriately clothed for the occasion.
  7. native – foreign: 固有の– 外国の
    1. The potato is native to South America.
    2. It’s interesting to learn a new foreign language.
  8. natural – artificial: 自然の – 人工の
    1. It’s good for your health to eat naturally grown vegetables.
    2. This artificial flower looks like a natural one.
  9. negligent –diligent: 怠慢な – 勤勉な
    1. I’m rather negligent in my dress.
    2. We were diligent at learning the art.
  10. normal – abnormal: 標準の– 異常な
    1. My temperature is a little below normal.
    2. Such abnormal temperatures even in November  are probably due to global warming.
  11. object – agree: 反対する – 同意する
    1. Will you object to my plan?
    2. I quite agree with you on this matter.
  12. obscure – clear: 薄暗い – 明らかな
    1. There was a cat in an obscure corner of the room.
    2. A clear and bright full moon rose from the eastern sky.
  13. often – seldom: しばしば – めったに..ない
    1. How often do you come here?
    2. It is seldom that I see him.
  14. oral – written: 口頭の – 書かれた
    1. This is like an English oral examination.
    2. Can I have written confirmation?

 

>Top 40.4c Antonym-3:

25

Antonym-3 (反意語-3)

  1. ordinary – extraordinary: 普通の– 異常な
    1. Here we can feel the daily life of ordinary people.
    2. That singing voice attracts me with its extraordinary beauty.
  2. pale – rosy: 顔色悪い – 血色がいい
    1. You look pale today, what happened?
    2. I envy young girls’ rosy lips and cheeks.
  3. patient – impatient: 辛抱強い –  短気な
    1. It’s important to be patient and wait until the rain stops.
    2. We are impatient for the concert to begin.
  4. perform – neglect: 達成する – 怠る
    1. The actor performed Hamlet perfectly in a play.
    2. Don’t neglect to answer the letter.
  5. perhaps – surely: おそらく – 確かに
    1. Perhaps I have lost my purse.
    2. You will surely enjoy the travel this time.
  6. peril – safety: 危険 – 安全
    1. Swim here at your peril?
    2. During the travel, we’ll assure your safety.
  7. personal – common: 個人的な – 共通の
    1. Don’t forget to bring your personal belongings.
    2. This is a quite common mistake.
  8. pity  – cruelty: 同情 – 残酷
    1. It’s a great pity to hear that.
    2. I recognize the cruelty of war by this picture.
  9. polite –rude: 礼儀正しい–粗野な
    1. Thank you for your polite explanation.
    2. It’s rude of you to ignore the guests.
  10. precious – valueless: 貴重な – 価値のない
    1. It was a necklace not valuable but precious to her.
    2. I bought a valueless antique for a low price.
  11. previous – following: 前の– 次の
    1. I have a previous engagement on the day.
    2. I’ll follow you in this place.
  12. progress – regress: 進歩 – 退歩
    1. She is making progress in English conversation.
    2. He has regressed to his childhood at the park.
  13. pull – push: 引く – 押す
    1. Could you pull down the window shade?
    2. I softly pushed the door open.
  14. put on – take off: 身につける – 脱ぐ
    1. I put on my glasses/hat/shoes/ring/lipstick.
    2. Take off your dirty shirt.
  15. quality – quantity: 質 – 量
    1. You can’t get quality unless you pay for it.
    2. Could you decrease the quantity of salt?
  1. raise – lower: 上げる – 下げる
    1. He raised an arm high, and smiled.
    2. He lowered himself into a chair.
  2. raw – cooked: 生の – 料理した
    1. It’s bet to eat oysters raw.
    2. Cooked beans will stay fresh in the refrigerator for a few days.
  3. regard – disregard: 注目する –  無視する
    1. The guide did not regard our wishes.
    2. Don’t disregard a traffic signal.
  4. regular – irregular: 規則的な– 不規則な
    1. The bus always runs at a regular speed.
    2. You can buy irregular fruits cheaply.
  5. rural – urban: 田舎の – 都会の
    1. Rural life is lovely and relaxing.
    2. Urban life is convenient, but we can’t feel the beauty of nature.
  6. safe – dangerous: 安全な – 危ない
    1. Safety and security are essential when traveling.
    2. It’s dangerous to get too close to the cliff.
  7. sensible – insensible: 敏感な – 鈍感な
    1. We need to wear sensible clothes for mountain climbing.
    2. I’m not insensible of the position I’m in.
  8. shy  – bold: 内気な – 大胆な
    1. I was too shy to speak to them in English.
    2. It’s bold of you to dispute her proposal.
  9. singular –ordinary: 奇妙な–普通の
    1. This box is singular in design.
    2. Please wrap the item in ordinary packaging.
  10. tame – wild: 飼い慣らされた– 野生の
    1. It won’t bite. It’s quite tame.
    2. In the safari park, there are many wild animals.
  11. theory – practice: 理論 – 実行
    1. The design is good in theory, but will not work in practice.
  12. thought – action: 考え – 行動
    1. I had no thought of seeing you here.
    2. Due to the action of the wind, desert sand forms dunes.
  13. true – false: 真の – 偽の
    1. It is true that she bought a new car.
    2. This diamond looks real, but at this price it must be a false jewel.
  14. vacant – full: 空の – 一杯である
    1. Is this seat vacant?
    2. The coaches were about two-thirds ful

 

>Top 50. Phonetic Symbols:

26

Phonetic Symbols (発音記号)

 

 

>Top 50.2 Phonetic Code:

27

Phonetic Code (音声コード)

 

 

 

>Top 50.4 Four Confusing Vowels:

28

Four Confusing Vowels (4つの間違えやすい母音)

 

>Top 50.5 Monophthong:

29

Monophthong (単母音)

 

>Top 50.7 Diphthongs Upward:

30

Diphthongs Upward (上向二重母音)

 

 

>Top 50.8 Diphthongs Centering:

31

Diphthongs Centering (中向二重母音)

 

 

>Top 60. Place of Articulation:

32

Place of Articulation (調音の場所)

子音

破裂音 plósives pig, big, ten, den, come [k], gum
破擦音 áffricates chain [], Jane []
摩擦音 frícatives fine, vine, think [θ], this [ð],
seal, zeal, ship [ʃ], measure [ʒ],
h
ouse
鼻音 násals mine, nine, ink [ŋ]
側音 láteral lip
無摩擦持続音
frictionless continuant
rain [r英]
半母音 semivowels you [j], way, rain [r米]

調音の場所

Násal cavity 鼻腔
Oral cavity 口腔
Alvéolar ridge
歯茎
Pálate 口蓋
Vélum (soft palate)
軟口蓋
Úvula 口蓋垂
Glotiss 声門
Phárynx 咽頭
Lip 唇
Teeth 歯
  1. [r]
    英音: rは弱く; 米音: rは巻き舌風
  2. 英音の特徴: can/can't: tを強く、rを弱く;spellが違う
  3. [t] 米音: 母音に挟まれたt→l音的: set up [selʌp], get off [gelɔ́ːf], meet him [miːlim]

 

>Top 60.2 Consonant Pronunciation

33

Consonant Pronunciation (子音の発音)

  • 留意点: 1) 唇の開閉、2) 舌の位置、3) 鼻音の有無, 4) 声の有無 (有声音・無声音)

  • [p・b] 破裂音
  • [p] 唇を閉じて、急に破裂させる音
  • [b] 声を出せば[b]
  • [p] pen, cup
  • [p=pp] happen
  • [b] big, bulb
  • [b=bb] rubber
  • [t・d] 破裂音; [tʃ・dʒ] 破擦音
  • [t] 舌先は上歯の歯茎辺りで、息を止める
  • [] 声を出せば[dʒ]
  • [t] tea, meet, city, butter
  • [d] day, sad, ladder
  • 米音: 母音+t+母音はl音
    city [síṭi]→[cíli]
    let it be →lel i'be
    let it go →lel i'go
  • [tʃ=ch]はtより舌が少し奥の位置で、チの息を出す。; cheap, touch , match
  • [dʒ=g,j,dj]は、ヂの声を出す;
    gem, giant, joy, adjust
  • [k・g[ 破裂音
  • [k] 舌の後部を上げ、急に舌を離して破裂音を出す。
  • [g] 声を出せば有声音[g]
  • [k] king, take
  • [k=c] a,o,uの前[硬音]
    cat, cold, cut,
  • [k=ck] pick, stocking
  • [g] a,o,uの前; gate, gold, gun
  • [g=gg] beggar
  • [f・v]摩擦音
  • [f] 下唇を上歯の内側に当て、隙間から強く息を出す。
  • [v] 声を出せば[v]
  • [f] face, leaf
  • [f=ff] cliff, effect
  • [f=ph] photo, graph
  • [θ・ð] 破擦音
  • [θ] 舌先を上の前歯裏に当てて隙間から息を出す。
  • [ð] 声を出せば[ð]
  • [θ=th] three, mouth, nothing
  • [ð=th] this, breathe, leather
  • [s・z] 摩擦音
  • [s] 舌先を上の歯茎に近づけ隙間からスの息を出す。
  • [z] 声を出せば[z]
  • [s] see, bus, bas
  • [s=ss] lesson, press
  • [s=c] e,i,yの前; cent, city,
    c
    ycle, face
  • [s=sc] e,i,yの前; scene, science,
  • [z] zoo, lazy
  • [z=zz] buzz
  • [ʃ・ʒ] 摩擦音
  • [ʃ]は舌先を歯茎につけないで、舌と歯茎の間からシと息で動物を追うような音
  • [ʒ] ジの声を出せば[ʒ]
  • [ʃ=sh] ship, dish
  • [ʃ=ti,ce,ci,si] 弱母音の前; station, ocean, social
  • [ʃ=su] sensual
  • [ʒ=si] television
  • [ʒu=su] casual
  • [tf]: [t]より少し奥の位置で上の歯茎に触れて息を出す。[tʃ・dʒ] は²字だが1音
  • [dʒ] 声をだせば[dʒ]
  • [tf=ch] cheap, touch
  • [tf=tch] match, catcher
  • [dʒ=g] e,i,yの前; gem, giant,
    g
    ym
  • [dʒ=dg] bridge, lodge
  • [dʒ=dj] adjust
  • [dʒ=du] educte, graduate
  • [ts][dz]は[t]の位置; [ts・dz[は2字だが1音
  • [ts] cats, eats
  • [dz=ds] birds, sends
  • [tr] は舌を[t]の位置につけ、続けて[r]の音を息で出す。tr・drも1音のつもりで出す
  • [dz] 声を出せば[dz]
  • [tr] tree, try, patrol
  • [dr] drink, draw
  • [m] 鼻音
  • [p][b]と同様に唇を閉じて声を鼻から出す音
  • [m] man, name
  • [m=mm] command, summer
  • [n] 鼻音
  • [t][d]同様に舌の先を上の歯茎をつけて声を鼻から出すヌの音
  • [n] night, run
  • [n=nn] announce,
    manner
  • [ŋ] 鼻音
  • [k][g]同様に、舌の後部を上あごの奥につけて鼻の方へ声を通して発音する
  • [ŋ=ng] king, long, singer[síŋər]
  • [ŋ=n] k,g発音の前;
    ink, uncle, anchor, finger
    [fíŋgər], sphinx
  • [l] 側音
  • [母音の前] 舌先を上の歯茎につけて舌の両側からウ・ルを同時に出す音
  • [l] lily
  • [l=ll] collect
  • [母音の後] 舌の形を緑色の形をとりウの音を出す
  • [l] girl
  • [l=ll] wall
  • [r] 半母音/無摩擦持続音
  • [米r] 舌中央を盛り上げながら舌を丸めてルの声を出す
  • [英r] 舌の先を反り返るように丸めて歯茎の後の方に近づける
  • [r] red, rose
  • [r=rr] arrive, marry

 

>Top 60.4 Confusing Vowels:

34

Confusing Vowels (間違えやすい母音)

日本語

英語

母音の例

æ

bag[bǽg], cap[kǽp], fan[fǽn], bad[bǽd], match[mǽtʃ], apple[ǽpl]

曖昧ア

ʌ

bag[bʌ́g], fun[fʌ́n], bud[bʌ́d], much[mʌ́tʃ], one[wʌ́n], son[sʌ́n]

曖昧ア・ウ

ə

about[əbáut], America [əmérikə], banana[bənǽnə], sofa[sóufə]

イ,イー

i, iː

live[lív],  it[ít],   sit[sít],  bit[bít],  hit[hít],   knit[nít], mitt[mít], pick[pík]
leave[líːv],eat[íːt],seat[síːt],beat[bíːt],heat[híːt],neat[níːt], meat[míːt],peak[píːk]

ウ,ウー

u, uː

foot[fút],  good[gúd],  pull[púl],   book[búk],  should[ʃúd],  could[kúd]
food[fúːd], goose[gúːs], pool[púːl], booth[búːθ], shoes[ʃúːz], cool[kúːl]

ɛə

chair[tʃɛ́ər], care[kɛ́ər], aware[əwɛ́ər], dare[dɛ́ər], pair[pɛ́ər], wear[wɛ́ər]

e

bed[béd], get[gét], lead[léd], red[réd], pet[pét], set[sét], wet[wét], yet[jét]

アー

ɑː

park[pɑ́ːrk], mark[mɑ́ːrk], car[kɑ́ːr], father[fɑ́ːðər], calm[kɑ́ːm], palm[pɑ́ːm]

ア|オ

ɑ|ɔ

hot [hɑ́t|hɔ́t], box[bɑ́ks|bɔ́ks], long[lɔ́(ː)ŋ], ox[ɑ́ks|ɔ́ks], soft[sɔ́(ː)ft]

オー

ɔː

bought[bɔ́ːt], caught[kɔ́ːt], law[lɔ́ː], awe[ɔ́ː],  saw[sɔ́ː],  paw[pɔ́ː] , pour[pɔ́ːr]

オウ

ou

boat[bóut],  coat[kóut],  low[lóu], owe[óu], sow[sóu], pope[póup] まちが

 

>Top 60.5 Confusing consonants:

35

Confusing Consonants (間違えやすい子音)

日本語

英語

子音の例

る ル

 r ,  l

right-light, rice-lice, raw-law, row-low, rate-late, ray-lay, rib-lib, rock-lock, rye-lie,
fry-fly, rag-lag, race-lace, rack-lack, rake-lake, rap-lap, ram-lamb, rain-lain, ray-lay, read-lead, rib-lib, rid-lid, river-liver; rot-lot, wrong-long, rub-love, royal-loyal, erect-elect, pray-play, cray-clay, correct-collect, fright-flight

ワァ,
フー
wh
[hw, huː]

what[hwʌ́t], when[hwén],where[hwɛ́ər], which[hwítʃ], why[hwái], while[hwáil]; weather[hwéðər]; whisky[hwíski], will[wəl,強wíl], wood[wúd];
who[húː], whose[húːz], whom[húːm], how[háu], whole[hóul]

フッ, ふぅ f , h

fold[fóuld]-hold[hóuld], fight[fáit]-height[háit], force[fɔ́ːrs]-horse[hɔ́ːrs]
fat[fǽt]-hat[hǽt], fall[fɔ́ːl]-hall[hɔ́ːl], feel[fíːl]-heel[híːl], fair[fɛ́ər]-hair[hɛ́ər]

ヴ, ブ v, b

van[vǽn]-ban[bǽn], valley[vǽli]-ballet[bálei], valve[vǽlv]-bulb[bʌ́lb], very[véri]-berry[béri], vend[vénd]-bend[bénd], bine[báin]-vine[váin]

ス、シュ

s,  ʃ

sit[sít]-shit[ʃít], see/sea[síː]-she[ʃíː], sip-ship, sow-show; same[séim]-shame[ʃéim], save[séiv]-shave[ʃéiv], seat[siːt]-sheet[ʃiːt], sell[sél]-shell[ʃél]

スィ/ス
ヅ/ズ

θ/s  
ð/z

think[θíŋk]-sink[síŋk], both[bóuθ]-boss[bɔ́s], cloths[klɔ́ːðz]-close[kóuz]

強調 Accent

fifty[fífti]/fifteen[fiftíːn], désert[dézərt]-dessért[dizə́ːt], ímport名-impórt動

 

>Top 60.6 Native Pronunciation:

36

Native Pronunciation (ネイティブの発音)

 

  1. 発音のつながり方法は3つ:
    1. Linking: 音と音が繋がる; Thank you →Thankyou [θǽŋkjuː]
    2. Reduction: 音が重なって一つ消える; want to →wan(t)to[wɔ́ntju]
    3. Assimilation: 音が同化する; miss you [mísjuː] 
  2. 子音+母音の連結:
    1. at a party→at’əpɑ́ti→ad’əpɑ́di [t→d]→ar’əpɑ́ri[d→r]; make a→méik’a;
      because of→bikʌ́z’əv; get up[gét ʌ́p]→gédəp(→gérəp); eat out[íːt áut]→íːaut→íːrau’;
    2. I met him→métim; tell him→télim ; give him→gívim; met her→métə→mérə
      [h→⌀; he/him/his/herのh]
  3. 寸止め: その口で終わる (p, t, d, k, g)
    1. up[ʌ́p]→ʌ́(p); it→í(t); get→gé(t); good→gú(d); bad→bǽ(d); make→méi(k); look→lú(k); big→bí(g)
    2. その後母音が続くと音が復活: stop it→sɔ́pi(t); get up→gétə(p); good idea→gudaidíə;
      make up→meikʌ́p; look at→lúka(t); people over→píːplouvə; make up again→méikəpəgén; look at it→lúkəti; get up at six→gétəpətsíks
  4. 子音+子音の連結:
    1. get together→getəgéðə; good day→gudéi; big guy→bigái; sit down→si’dáun;
      good time→gu’táim; look good→lu’gúd; drop by→drɔ’bái;
    2. could go→ku’góu; I’ve been→ai’bíːn; give me→gi’míː ;stop making→stə’méikiŋ;
    3. it looks→i’lúks; it not like→it’nəláik; I’m not ready→aimnə rédi;
      at my house→əmai háus; expect me→ikspék’mi; how’s it going?→hauzi’góuiŋ
    4. it was→i’wʌ́z; what was→wə’wʌ́z; what would→wə’wú’(d); what do→whado [wə́duy, wə́də]
  5. I’m going to [túː, tu, tə, də, ə]→gonna[gənə]; for[fə] lunch?; go to→góudə; want to→wanna;  got to→gotta; have got to→’ve gotta
  6. What︵time is ︵it now? [hwɔta im izit'na] →Do you have the time?
 

省略形の発音

 

Be

Will/Shall

Would/Should

Have

Had

I I'm [aim] I'll [áil] I'd [áid] I've [ʌiv] I'd [ʌid]
You You're [jər] You'll [jəl] You'd [jud] You've [juv] You'd [jud]
He He's [hiz, iz] He'll [hil; il] He'd [hid] He's [hiz] He'd [hid]
She She's [ʃiz] She'll [ʃil] She'd [ʃid] She's [ʃiz] She'd [ʃid]
It It's [its] It'll [ítl] It'd [ítəd] It's [its] It'd [ítəd]
We We're [wiər] We'll [wil] We'd [wid] We've [ðər] We'd [wid]
They They're [ðər] They'll [ðéil] They'd [ðéid] They've They'd
That That 's [ðəts] That'll [ðətl] That'd ≒ That'll That's [ðat] That'd
  Is Are        
Who Who's [huz, uz] Who're [húər] Who'll [huːl, ul]      
What What's [wəts] What're What'll      
Where Where's [wɛ́əz] Where're Where'll      
When When's When're When'll      
Why Why's Why're Why'll      
How How's How're [hauər] How'll [haul]      
  Not          
Might Mightn't [máitnt]          
Must Mustn't [mʌ́snt]          
Have ever You have ever Yever      
           
 

>Top 60.7 Phoneics:

37

Phonetics (スペルと発音)

発音

スペル

æ|ɑː

a, au

after, ask, back, cap, cat, fact, family, had, hand, has, have, last, man, national, rather, that; laugh

ɑːr

ar, ear

arch, are, army, car, charge, dark, far, farm, large, hard, market, part, start; heart

ʌ | 弱ə

a, o, oe,
oo, ou, u

what; another, come, from, once, one, other, some, nothing; does; blood, flood; enough, tough, young;  just, much, must, number, public, such; under, up, us;

əːr

ear, er, ir, or, ur

early, earth, heard; certain, person, service, sister; bird, first, girl, third; word, work,
world, doctor; church, further, hurt, surface, turn;

ai

i, ie, igh,
y, ey

find, five, life, like, line, mind, side, time, unite, while; high, light, might, night, right; lie, pie; high, sigh; by, sky, try, why; aye; eye;

au

ou, ow, ough

about, account, around, doubt, found, house, ouch, our, out, sound; brown, down, how, now, town; bough, plough

i

i, y

big, did, him, his, if, in, inn, its, little, live, six, still, since, this, which, will; city, ay, hey, many, very;

e, ea, ee, ei, ie, ey

even, he, me, she, these; each, feast, lead, least; see, need, three; receive; field, piece; key;

iər

ear, eer, ere

appear, clear, dear, fear, hear, near, year; beer, career, deer, sheer; here, mere

u

oo, ou, o, u

book, foot, good, look, took; could, should, would; woman; full, pull, push, put

ew, o, oo, ou, ough, u, ue, ui

few, new; do, two, who whose; booth, doom, goose, loom, moon, school, shoot, too,
tooth, zoom; you, group; through; future, music, rule, student, use; blue, sue, true;
bruise, cruise

uər

oor, our,
ure, ury

poor; tour; pure, sure; fury

e

a, ai, e, ea

any, many; again, said; egg, ever, get, left, men, never, them, then, very, well, when, where;
bread, head;

ɛər

air, are, ere

air, chair, fair, hair, pair; care, hare, rare, stare; there, where

ei

a, ay ea,
eigh, ey

 able, ate, came, case, face, gave, information, make, made, name, place, state, take, taken;
always, away, day, may, say, today, way; break, great; eight, sleigh; grey, hey, ley, obey, they;

ɑ(ː)|ɔ

a, o

father, want, water, watch; hot, box, got, god, job, John, problem, possible;

ɔː

a, au, aw, ough

all, also, ball, call, mall, small, talk, water; audio, autumn, faucet, sauce; awe, law, paw, saw; bought, cough, fought, ought, thought

ɔːr

ar, oar, oo,
or, ore, our

war; board, ward; door; force, form, important, morning, or, order, short; before; court,
course, four, your;

ɔi

oi, oy

avoid, boil, choice, join, oil, point, soil, voice; boy, enjoy, loyal, toy

ou

o, oa,
ow, ough

also, both, don’t, go, home, most, no, old, open, over, so, social, those; boat, toast, coach;
know, low, own, snow; though

     
 

>Top 60.7b The Great Vowel Shift:

38
The Great Vowel Shift (大母音推移)
 
  1. English can be understood through tough thorough thought, though.
    through [θruː] tough [tʌf] thorough [θʌrə], thought [θɔːt], though [ðəu].
    1. ¶I looked through the window.;
    2. ¶I worked through the night.
    3. ¶ We might look tough, but we’re actually pretty weak.
    4. ¶ You did a really thorough job at work.
    5. ¶ The job was more difficult than your thought.
    6. ¶ I might come over later, though I’m not sure.
  2. Strange spelling:
    1. knife
    2. doublt <L. debitum (ラテン語重視する学者 vs. 庶民の発音 (<dette)
    3. high
    4. receipt
    5. women
    6. Mary merried merrily.
 
 
  1. 大母音推移 (The Great Vowel Shift) (15-17C);
    長母音の舌の位置が順に繰り上がる現象;
    16Cからは活版技術によってスペルが固定化 (発音は変化)
    1. food [foːd]→[fuːd]; moon [moːn]→[muːn]
    2. see [seː]→[siː]; feet [feːt]→[fíːt]
    3. blind [bliːnd]→[bláind]; mice [miːs]→[máis]
    4. house [huːs]→[háus]; down [duːn] →[dáun]
 

>Top 60.7c Easily Misspelling List

39

Common Mispellings (よくスペルを間違そうな単語)

 
  1. accommodate: double c and m
  2. acquire: c is silent. See sth before you acquire it.
  3. acquit: c is silent. Cf. accusation of criminal activities.
  4. amateur: <French suffix; amateurs need to mature.
  5. apparent: We mus pay the rent.
  6. argument: silent e of argue
  7. atheist: a+God+ist is the one who doesn't believe in God.
  8. believe: i comes usually before e;
  9. bellwether: not related weather. Wether is a gelded ram that leads the herd.
  10. calendar: one e is sandwiched between two a's
  11. category: <G. agora
  12. cemetery: not cemetary <G. koiman =put to sleep
  13. changeable: g is soft sound, and keeps e.
  14. collectible: final syllable ends with i.
  15. column: silent final n
  16. committed: double consonants mm and tt.
  17. conscience: sc is consonant blend (each makes its own sound)
  18. conscious: sc is ch sound; thinking iou.
  19. consensus: census doesn't require consensus.
  20. definitely: silent e remains.
  21. discipline: no sc sound; 3 syllables dis-ci-pline
  22. drunkenness: too much drinking causes double nn and ss.
  23. dumbbell: b of dumb is silent; compound noun remains all the letters.
  24. embarrassment: it embarrasses double rr and ss.
  25. environment: <L. viron =circuit
  26. equipment: not equiptment. t is only the end.
  27. exhilarate: h is silent. and two a's.
  28. exceed: side by side e's.
  29. existence: there is no a in existence.
  30. experience: there are 4 e's.
  31. fiery: [fáiəri] <fire; not firery
  32. foreign: violates i-before-e rule; foregin is different.
  33. gauge: [géidʒ] a-u is in alphabetical order.
  34. government: [gʌvəmnt]
  35. grateful: [géitfəl] <gratitude; not great
  36. guarantee: is not spelled like qaranty, though are synonyms.
  37. harass: ss on the end.
  38. height: [háit] unlike neither heigh nor width
  39. hierarchy: i-before-e rules.
  40. humorous: [hjuːmorəs] r is so weak here, it needs o on both sides to hold it up.
  41. independent: no a's in this spell; no a's.
  42. ignorance: <ignorant; no e
  43. immediate: mm, not single m
  44. ignorance: not -rence.
  45. inoculate: not inno-; one n is enough
  46. intelligence: ll + -gence; not -gance;
  47. jewelry: <jeweler
  48. judgment: Judges make judgments.; Br. judgement
  49. kernel: all the vowels are e's.
  1. liaison: <F. a is sandwiched between two i's.
  2. liaison: [liéizɔn]
  3. library: <L. liber =book + -ary ;
  4. license: Br. licence (<Commonwealth) ; US. license
    (< State)
  5. maintenance:
  6. maneuver: <F. main + oeuvre = handwork
  7. medieval:
  8. memento: [məméntou] < L. meminisse =remember; ou
  9. millennium:
  10. miniature:
  11. minuscule: extremely small
  12. mischievous:
  13. i before e; ous not -us
  14. misspell: < mis+spell; s's spelling
  15. neighbor: gh is silent; ei is an exception to i before e rule.
  16. noticeable: e is retained to indicate c si soft (s sound)
  17. occasionally: cc and ll appear.
  18. occurrence: cc and rr appear.; suffice is -ence, not -ance
  19. pastime: <past time, but s is single
  20. perseverance: 4 e's; suffice -ance
  21. personnel: personal is a different word
  22. playwright: play + write
  23. possession: ss + ss
  24. precede: <L. pre+ cedere
  25. principal: top of their occupation
  26. privilege:
  27. pronunciation: [prənʌnsiéiʃən]
  28. publicly:
  29. questionnaire: <F.
  30. receipt: p is silent
  31. recommend:
  32. referred: final consonants are ofter doubled before -ed.
  33. reference: -ence
  34. relevant: -ant.
  35. rhyme:
  36. rhythm: <G.
  37. separate
  38. sergeant: -ant
  39. supersede: -sede
  40. threshold: thresh+hold
  41. twelfth:
  42. tyranny:
  43. vacuum: uu, not single u
  44. weather:
  45. weird: [wíərd] an exception of i before e sule.
  • George Bernard Shaw's famous spelling of 'fish' as 'ghoti':
    • tough [tʌ́f]: gh=f
    • women [wímin]: o=i
    • nation [néiʃən]:ti=ʃ
    • then: gh-o-ti becomes [f-i-ʃ]

 

 

 
 

>Top 60.8 Strong form & Weak form pronunciation

40

Strong & Weak Form Pronunciation (強形と弱形の発音)

単語

強形 弱形

単語

強形 弱形

単語

強形 弱形
a

éi

əː, ə

be bíː bi we

wíː

wi
an

ǽn

ən, ə

been

bíːn

bin

our

áuər

r

the

ðíː

ðə, ð; ði

am

ǽm

əm, m

us

ʌ́s

əs, s

some

sʌ́m

səm, sm

is

iz

z, s

to

túː

any

éni

əniː, əni

are

ɑ́ːr

ər

for

fɔ́ːr

r

so

sóu

was

wʌ́z,wɑ́z|wɔ́z

wəz

of

ʌ́v, ɑ́v |ɔ́v

əv, ə

as

ǽz

əz, z

you júː ju, jə with

wíð,wíθ

wəð,wəθ

no

nou

your

júəːr|jɔː

r

and

ǽnd

ənd,nd,n

not

nɑ́t|nɔ́t

nt, n

he

híː

hi, i who

húː

hu, u

will

wíl

wəl, əl, l

she

ʃíː

ʃi

whose

húːz

huz, uz

would

wúd

wəd, əd, d

his

híz

hiz, iz whom

húːm

hum, um
shall

ʃǽl

ʃə, ʃ

him

hím

himim have

hǽv

həv,əv,v

should

ʃúd

ʃəd, ʃd her hə́ːr r, əːr, ər has hǽz həz,əz,z,s
can

kǽn

kən, kn

their ðέər ðər had hǽd

həd. əd

could

kúd

kəd

them ðém ðəm, əm there ðɛ́ər ðər
 

>Top 60.9 Tongue Twisters

41

Tongue Twisters (早口言葉)

[s, ʃ]
  • She sells six sea shells by the seashore.
  • [ʃíː/sélz/síks/síː/ʃélz/ʃɔ́ːr]
  • 彼女は海岸で6つの貝殻を売っている
[fr, θr]
  • He threw three free throws.
  • [θrúː/θríː/fríː/θróu]
  • 彼はフリースローを3回投げた。
[f,ʃ; r,l]
  • Freshly fried fresh flesh.
  • [fréʃli/fráid/fréʃ/fléʃ]
  • 新しく油で揚げた新鮮な肉。
[ku, kʌ, kwi]
  • Cooks cook cupcakes quickly. [kúks/kúk/kʌ́pkeiks/kwíkli]
  • コック達は急いでカップケーキを料理した。
[ju, ni, nju]:
  • You know New York, you need New York,
    you know you need unique New York.  
  • [juː/nóu/njuːjɔ́ːk/níːd/juníːk]
  • あなたはNYを知っている。あなたはNYが必要です。あなたはユニークなNYが必要だと知っている。
[pi, pa, pe]
  • Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.
  • [píːtər/páipər/píkt/pék/píkld/pépərz]
  • ピーターパイパーは沢山の唐辛子のピクルスをつまんだ。
[b, v]
  • Barry buries various berries in a village.
  • [bǽri/béəriz/vɛ́əriəs/vériz/vílidʒ]
  • バリーは各種ベリーを村の中に埋めた。
[s, θ]
  • The sixth sick sheik’s sixth sheep’s sick.
  • [síksθ/ʃéiks/ʃíːp/sík]
  • 6人目の病気の族長の6番目の羊が病気
[e, æ]
  • Eight apes ate eight apples.
  • [éit/éips/éit/ǽplz]
  • 8匹の猿が8個のリンゴを食べた。
[f, h]
  • Few hares fear human hair.
  • [fjuː/hɛ́ər/fíər/hjuːmən]
  • 野うさぎのほとんどは人の髪の毛を恐れない。
[b, v]
  • Vivian believes violent, violet bugs have very big value.     
  • [vívian/bilíːvz/váiələnt/váiəlit/bʌ́gz/véri/bíg/vǽljuː]
  • ビビアンは乱暴な紫色の虫は大きな価値があると信じている。
[k, v]
  • Keen Vikings buy the King a bike.
  • [kíːn/váikiŋ/kiŋ]
  • 熱意あるヴァイキングが王さまにバイクを買う。
[li, læ. lʌ]:
  • Little Larry loved his leaping lizards.
  • [lítl/lǽri/lʌ́vd/líːpiŋ/lízərz/báik]
  • 小さなラリーはビックリトカゲが大好き
[r, l]
  • Red leather, yellow leather; Red lorry, yellow lorry.
  • [réd/léðər/jélou]
  • 赤い革、黄色い革; 赤いトロッコ、黄色いトロッコ
[r, l]
  • Gloomy grooms roamed around Rome.
  • [glúːmi/grúːm/róum/əráund/róum]
  • 暗い新郎たちがローマを歩く
[br, bl; bi, bʌ]
  • Brown bees buzzed busily beside the bluebells.
  • [bráun/bíːz/bʌ́zd/bízili/bisáid/blúːbelz]
  • 茶色の蜂が、ブルーベルのそばでブンブン飛んだ。
[bi, be, bl]
  • A big black bug bit a big black bear and made the big black bear bleed blood.
  • [bíg/blǽk/bʌ́g/bít/blíːd/blʌ́d]
  • 大きな黒の虫が大きな黒のクマを刺して血を出した。

 

>Top 70. Five Sentence Patterns; 五文型:

42

Five Sentence Patterns (5文型)

 

>5 sentence pattern
>Eng Grammar Egawa

 

>Top 70.1 English Tenses:

43

English Tenses (英語の時制)

 

 

 

>Top 70.2 Sentence Pattern -V:

44

Sentence Pattern-V (第5文型)

 

>Top 70.3 Verb Tenses:

45

Tenses of Verbs (動詞の時制)

 

>Top 70.4 Future Expression:

46

Future Expression (未来時制の表現法)

  1. 英語の時制は、現在形過去形:
    1. 未来形は、内容の確信度に応じて様々な表現を使う。
    2. [9通り]:
      1. will/shall [未来形: 未来の出来事を鮮明に見通した予測や意志]
        1. It will rain tomorrow; OK I'll do iut later!
      2. will be doing [未来進行形: 未来一時点での成り行きを思い描いて述べる。]
        1. We will be flying ove rthe Pacific at this time tomorrow.
        2. When will yuou be visiting us? [誰の意志も含まないので、押し付けがましくない丁寧な響き]
      3. will have [現在形: 現時点で確定している揺るがない未来]
        1. This train leaves this station at seven sharp.
      4. be doing [現在進行形: 準備が現在進行中の近い未来]
        1. I'm leaving for London next month.
      5. be going to [ある出来事に向かっていくイメージ]
        1. We are going to get some today, since ther are no eggs in the fridge.
      6. be to [水汲むべき道を指し示す感覚; 格式]
        1. The meeting is to be held on Sunday of next week.
      7. be about to [今まさに出来事が近接して起こる差し迫った表現]
        1. Oh, Linda. I was just about to come and talk to you.
      8. be scheduled to [確定的な予定が決まっている表現]
        1. The regular meeing is scheduled for 10 a.m.

  2. 過去形のイメージは距離感:
    1. ¶ I skipped breakfast this morning. [過去の事実]
    2. Could you do me a favor? [丁寧な表現]
    3. ¶ "We be having a surprise birthday party this coming Friday. Can you make it?"
      - "I wish I could, but I have other plans." [仮定法→丁寧表現]

  3. さまざまな未来表現:
    1. Tomorrow is Thursday. [現時点で確定している事実]
      1. be doing [近未来で確定的] ; I am leaving tomorrow.
      2. 以下それぞれの文の比較:
        1. The concert starts at 6:00. [予定が確定している]
        2. ? The concert will start at 6:00 [予定は確定していない?]
        3. The train arrives in Shin-Osaka at 14:00. [時刻通りの運行予定]
        4. The train will arrive in Shin-Osaka at 14:00 [何かの遅延事情で到着変更の予測]
        5. I start work tomorrow. [会社など第三者が予定を決定]
        6. I am starting work tomorrow. [話し手が予定を決定]
    2. I will be twenty tomorrow. [現時点での予測; 話し手にとっては100%の確信]
      1. will be doing: [未来のある時点での動作の進行]
      2. will have done: [未来のある時点での動作の完了]


  4. 未来表現のニュアンス比較:
    1. 以下比較: 確信の度合いの違い [will/must/should/may/might]
      1. Jack will join later. [多分来るだろう]
      2. Jack must join later. [約束しているので来るに違いない]
      3. Jack should join later. [予定では来るはずなのに...]
        1. Jack should have joined now. [もう時間的には到着しているはずなのに...]
      4. Jack may join later. [わからないけどその内来るかも知れない]
        1. Jack may or may not join later. [来るか来ないかわからない]
        2. Jack may possibly join later. [来る可能性はあるけど; 可能性↘]
        3. Jack may well join later. [まだ来る可能性はあるけど; 可能性↗]
      5. Jack might join later. [ひょっとしたら来るかも知れない]
    2. 以下比較: 躍動感の有無
      1. I will come back in an hour.
      2. He is going to fall down. [倒れかかっている様子が観察される; 躍動感]
    3. 以下2文の比較: 意味の拡張
      1. I am going to the library. [進んでいる途中]
      2. I am going to eat lunch. [行為に気持ちが向かっている]
    4. 以下2文の比較:
      1. It will snow this afternoon. [単なる予報]
      2. It is going to snow this afternoon. [雪雲など雪が降りそうな予兆]
    5. 以下2文の比較:
      1. I am meeting Tom at the station at six. [話し手はトムと約束済み]
      2. I am going to meet Tom at the station at six. [話し手の意図]

  5. Clear the table. [机の上を片付けて; 原形=まだ未実行]
  6. I am about to come. [aboutは、何かの周辺; toが到達点; 行為を始めようとしている所→もうすぐ出る]
    1. The meeting is scheduled to be held next Thursday. [to以下が計画された状態にある]
    2. The meeting is to be held next Thursday. [原形で表される未来に向かった状態にある]
      ♦ [be to] (未来のとりきめ) が基本形で、[be about to]、[be scheduled to]のように発展した表現
 
 

>Top 70.4b be to infinitive:

47

be+to Infinitive (助動詞be+to不定詞)

  1. 公式の予定: ...することになっている [=道を指し示す]
    1. We are to meet at seven. 7時に会うことになっている
    2. They were to have been married. 彼らは結婚することになっていた。 [実現しなかった]
    3. They were to be married. 彼らは結婚することになっていた。[実現しなかったことを含意]
    4. (新聞などではbe省略) President to Visit Japan 大統領訪日の予定
  2. 義務: ...すべきだ
    1. You are not to leave this building. (=You should not leave ...) 建物を出てはいけない
    2. The form is to be filled in and returned within two weeks. 記入の上2周間以内に返送
  3. 可能: ...できる
    1. The ring was not to be found. (=The ring could not be found.) どこにも見つからない
  4. 運命: ... する運命である
    1. After his accident, he was never to get a chance to play in a game. 事故後、試合に出る機会はなかった
  5. 意図: ...したいなら
    1. If you are to succeed in your new job, you must work hard now. (=If you mean to succeed ...)
      成功したいなら今懸命に働くこと
  6. 目的: ...するためのもの
    1. The letter was to announce their engagement. 手紙は婚約を知らせるためのもの
  7. (仮定法) if ... were to do: 仮に...するとしたら
    1. If I were to buy a new house, may family will be glad. もし新しい家を買えば
    2. Were the sun to rise in the west, I would not break the promise. 太陽が西から昇っても [if省略で倒置]
 
 

>Top 70.5 Past Form & PP Form:

48

Past Form vs. Present Perfect Form (過去形 & 現在進行形)

  1. 学校文法: ①完了; ②結果; ③経験; ④継続
    1. ①It has just stopped raining. ②I have just painted the bench.
      ③Have you ever seen a UFO? ④We have been married for thirty years.
    2. 過去形は”離れた静的な描写”;  現在完了形は”今迫ってくる動的な表現”
  2. 過去形と現在進行形との比較
    1. We were partners for five years. [5年間の間はパートナーでした。]
    2. We have been partners for five years. [5年前から(今まで)パートナーです。]
    3. He worked for the same company all his life.
       [生涯同じ会社で働いていました。(生前は)]
    4. He has worked for the same company all his life.
       [これまでずっと同じ会社で (今もです)]
    5. Where did I park my car?  [以前は、どこに駐車したのかなあ]
    6. Where have I parked my car? [今日、どこに駐車したのかなあ]
  3. 過去を明示する語句には現在完了形は使わない
    1. ✕I have seen the movie last night? →I saw the move last night.
    2. ✕I have had an accident some ten days ago. →I had an accident some ten days ago.
 
 

>Top 70.6 Sequence of Tenses:

49

Sequence of Tenses (時制の一致)

  1. 原則: 主節動詞が過去なら、従属節も過去
    1. He said, “I’m from US.”
       →He said that he was from US. [報告が過去ならその発言も過去]
    2. (例外1) ¶The teacher said that the earth is round. [変わらぬ真理]
    3. (例外2) ¶She said that she goes shopping every day. [変わらぬ習慣]
  2. V+that …は報告
    1. She buys a souvenir.
      → I thought that she _____ a souvenir.
      → He knew that she _____ a souvenir.
      → A friend of mine told me that she _____ a souvenir.
      → Sorry? What did you say she _____ a souvenir?
    2. I enjoyed France but I had a lot of problems with the language.
        How about your trip?
    3. I had a great time in Australia because everyone spoke English there!”
        Yeah, Next time I’ll go there!
  3. 時制の一致をしない場合: 現在に続く意識
    1. My staff informed me that you had a problem with one of our products. [単なる報告]
    2. My staff informed me that you have a problem with one of our products.
       [現在もお困りでしょう。この件についてご相談に乗る用意があります。]
 

>Top 70.7 Intransitive Verb vs. Transitive Verb:

50

Intransitive Verb vs. Transitive Verb (自動詞 vs. 他動詞)

 
  1. 自動詞: それだけで意味が成立。目的語は不要 [Ⅰ]
    1. Birds sing.; We stand. 
    2. 〜に、〜をの意味を追加するには前置詞が必要
      • She lives in Tokyo. 
      • I go to the station.
      • I haven’t replied to his letter.
  2. 他動詞: かならず目的語を必要とする。
    1. I haven’t answered his letter.  [Ⅲ名]
    2. I like to watch movies. [Ⅲ to do], 
    3. I like watching movies. [Ⅲ ing]
    4. I bought a souvenir for my wife.  [Ⅲ名副]
    5. I stopped smoking (since last year) [Ⅲ ing]
  3. 自動詞も他動詞もとる。(意味が違う)
    1. I called on my friend at three o’clock. (自動詞) [Ⅰ副]
    2. I called my friend at three o’clock (他動詞) [Ⅲ名副]
    3. I stopped to smoke (in front of the entrance) [Ⅰ名副]
    4. His latest novel is selling very well. (自動詞)[Ⅰ副]
    5. His latest novel has sold 100 thousand copies. (他動詞) [Ⅲ名]
  4. 自動詞と取り違えやすい他動詞
    1. the animal resembles a rat.
       [✕resemble to a rat.]
    2. We reached our destination in two days.
       [✕reached to our destination]
       [○arrive at]
    3. A stranger approached me.
      [✕approached to me.]
    4. Many people attended the party.
       [✕attended to the party.]
    5. My sister married a bank clerk.
      [✕married with a bank clerk.]
    6. I discussed the problem of food with them.
      [✕discussed about the problem]
    7. We must consider other people’s feelings
       [✕consider about other people ‘s feelings.]
  5. 他動詞と取り違えやすい自動詞
    1. We all hope for your success.
      [○We all wish your success.]
    2. I object to her going to the party.
    3. I quite agree with you on that point.
    4. I apologized to him for my fault.
 
 

>Top 70.8 Causative Verb:

51

Causative Verb (使役動詞)

 
  1. 学校文法: let, have, get, makeの意味は、
    1. let: 容認・勧誘; have 使役・容認・経験; get 努力して使役; make 強制
  2. let:
    1. Let your dog run free in the yard. [自由に庭で走らせる]
    2. Let us know when you will arrive at Shibuya.
    3. get: 何か動いてその結果を得るという動的な(説得・努力をしての)使役
    4. She got her sister to help her pack. [妹に荷造りの手伝いを頼んだ]
    5. I got my parents to mind the dog while we are away. [留守中犬の世話を頼んだ]
  3. have: その人の所に存在しているという静的な位置関係から(自動的に)使役
    1. I had my brother sweep the floor. [弟(の役割なので)床掃除をさせた]
    2. I won’t have my staff answer you back like that.
         [あなたにそんな口答えは(役割上)許さない]
    3. I had my printed repaired. [プリンタを修理してもらった。(契約関係)]
    4. I had my wallet stolen in the bus. [財布を盗まれた(という被害)]
  4. make: 相手への配慮・意見は関係なく強制的・権威上にやらせる・変える
    1. The teacher made the student stand at the corridor. [先生は生徒を廊下に立たせた]
    2. You can’t make her come with us. [彼女を一緒にこさせることはできない]
    3. I’ll wake my wife up and
      make her drive you home. [亭主関白]
      have her drive you home. [従業員]
      get her drive you home. [標準]
      ask her if she wouldn’t mind driving you home. [恐妻家]
 
 

>Top 70.9 Perceptual Verb:

52

Perceptual Verb & Sentence Pattern-V (知覚動詞と第5文型)

 
  1. 知覚動詞(see, look, watch, hear, listen, smell, feel, taste, find..)
    1. I found the meat. + The meat is a bit tough.
      →I found the meat a bit tough.
    2. I saw a dog.  + A dog is running around.
      →I saw a dog running around.
    3. I looked her cross the street. [単なる観察]
      →I looked her crossing the street. [躍動感を感じる]
    4. I felt the music attractive. [SV名形]
      →I heard someone call my name. [SV名do]
      →I can smell something burning. [SV名doing]
      →I noticed him the perfect gentleman. [SV名名]
      →I heard my name called by someone. [SV名過分]
 
 

>Top 80. Different nuance of Verbs:

53

Different Nuance of Verbs (動詞のニュアンスの違い)

 

 

 
  1. 夢を見る:
    1. I had a strange dream last night.
    2. dream a dream;  ✕see a dream;
  2. 薬・スープを飲む:
    1. I take medicine every morning.
    2. She ate soup at lunch.
  3. 行く:
    1. I’ll come to your house tomorrow. [伺う]
    2. I’ll go to see him tomorrow.[出かける]
  4. 教える:
    1. Will you tell me the way to the post office? [口頭]            
    2. Will you show me the way to the post office? [図示・同行]        
    3. Can you teach me how to write a letter in English? [知識・技能]
  5. 借りる:
    1. Can I borrow your umbrella?
    2. Can I use your bathroom?
    3. Can I borrow/use your telephone?
  6. 忘れる:
    1. I forgot my keys. [持って来ない]
    2. I left my gloves in your car. [置き忘れ]
  7. 疑わしい:
    1. I doubt if I’ll finish the work by tomorrow. [doubt ≒don’t think]
    2. Doctors suspect smoking has to do with cancer. [suspect ≒think]
  8. 盗む:
    1. The burglar robbed her of some jewels. [robe A of B; AからBを強奪する]   
    2. The burglar stole some jewels from her. [steel B from A; AからBをこっそり盗む]
  9. 書く:
    1. She wrote her name in Kanji.
    2. She drew a circle on the blackboard   
    3. Do you like landscaped painted by Turner?
  10. 滞在する:
    1. We are staying at a hotel during the travel. [ホテル滞在]    
    2. I’ll stay an old friend for a week. [客として滞在]  
    3. We’re living in a nice apartment.
    4. He lives in London. [住んでいる]
  11. 見る:
    1. I saw him cross the street. [ずっと]
    2. I saw him crossing the street.[ふと見たら]
    3. I looked at some little birds bathing in the puddle. [水浴びを観る]
    4. Di you notice John go upstairs?[気づく]
    5. I observed someone coming toward me.[見えた]
  12. 聞く:
    1. I heard someone call my name.[呼ぶのを]
    2. I heard someone calling my name.[呼んでる]
    3. She listened to her grandma talk about the good old days. [傾聴]
 
 

>Top 80.1 State Verbs and Action Verbs:

54

State Verb & Action Verb (状態動詞と動作動詞)

 
  1. 状態動詞: beなど継続的な状態の表現:
    →(特別な場合除き)進行形にできない
    1. ①存在・心理状態 (認識・感情): agree, believe, forget, hate, hope, know,
      like , love, mind, remember, think, understand, want; be, belong, contain,
      exist, have, live, own, remain, resemble, understand, want
    2. 知覚状況 (見える・聞こえる): feel, hear, see, smell, taste
  2. 動作動詞: doなど断続できる動作・変化の表現:→進行形にできる
    1. ①自分の意思・行動:look at, listen to は自分の意思なので動作動詞
    2. ほとんどの動詞が該当
  3. 状態(S)と動作(A)の両義動詞 have, think, look, smellなどがある。
    1. S: ¶I have two sisters.
      (✕I am having two sisters.) 二人の姉がいる
    2. A: ¶I have bread for breakfast. 朝食にパンを食べる
      (○I am having for breakfast) 今食べている
    3. S: ¶I think so. 動作:
      A: ¶I’m thinking of you. そう思う| 考えている
    4. S: ¶She looks nice. 動作:
      A: ¶She is looking at me. 見える| 見ている
    5. S: ¶This flower smells good.
      A: ¶She is smelling the flower. 匂いがする|匂いをかいでいる。
 
 

>Top 80.2 To-Infinitive

55

To-Infinitive (To不定詞)

 

to不定詞 [To+原形は時制に捕らわれない一般論]

  1. I went to the park.  [Why? When? With whom? (相手の期待)]
    1. I went to the park (to see cherry trees in full bloom.) [目的]
    2. You are old enough (to know better.) [程度]
    3. He grew up (to be a famous scholar). [結果]
    4. I was delighted (to see him.)  [原因]
    5. The rope wasn’t strong enough (to support two men.) [程度]
    6. The river is dangerous (to swim in.)  [限定]
  2. Do you have something (to drink?)
    1. I do not know what (to do.)
    2. I do not know how (to do.)
    3. I do not know where (to start.)
  3. To smoke is dangerous for your health.
    1. It is impossible to control the market price.
    2. He is to come at 3 o’clock.
    3. It’s too cold (to go out without a coat today.)
    4. We are about (to leave without you.)
    5. To speak frankly, I don’t quite like the idea.
    6. To tell the truth, I’m not sure where I left it.
 
 

>Top 80.4 Relative Pronoun:

56

Relative Pronoun (関係代名詞)

 
  1. This is the diligent girl. + The girl is reading a  book. [主格]
    → This is the diligent girl who is reading a book.
  2. This is the girl. + He likes the girl. [目的格]
    → This is the girl whom he likes the girl. → This is the girl who he likes.  [whoは口語的]
  3. 関係代名詞は、単文より詳しい情報・説明を追加する場合
    1. The person is very friendly. [あの人はとても親切です。]
      1. The person who lives next door is very friendly.
      2. The person who lives next door is very friendly, and (who) is also very intelligent.
    2. She receives a letter from him.
      1. She received a letter from him, which she read again and again.
      2. She received a letter, (which was) just arrived today from him, which she read again and again.
      3. She received a letter, which she has longing for the arrival, (which was) just arrived today….
  4. 疑問詞 (who, what, which, whose, when, where, why, how) は“穴埋めX”文
    1. それはどんなXの味がします?
      How does it taste? It taste salty. [Howは形容詞・副詞のX]
    2. それは何Xの味がしますか?    
      What does is taste?  It taste like chicken. [whatは名詞のX]
    3. What do you think about it?
    4. What do you call this?
    5. How do you feel about it?
    6. Can you tell how she got angry?
 
 

>Top 80.5 Indicative mood vs. Subjunctive mood:

57

直説法と仮定法 (Indicative Mood vs. Subjunctive Mood)

 
  1. 直説法:
    1. If it rains tomorrow, we will cancel the game. 明日雨が降れば、試合は中止だろう。
  2. 仮定法現在:
    1. She demanded that he (should) tell her the truth. 彼女は彼が真実を話すように要求した。
    2. It is desired that he (should) come immediately.   すぐ来ることが望ましい。
  3. 仮定法過去:
    1. If I were you, I would accept the offer. もし私なら、その提案は受けないのに。
    2. If I had money, I would buy this dress. もしお金があれば、このドレスを買うのだが
  4. 仮定法過去完了:
    1. If I had known, I would have attended the meeting. もし知っていたら、私は出席したのに
    2. If I had had enough money, I could have bought the picture.もし十分お金があればその絵が買えたのに
  5. 仮定法未来:
    1. If you were to study English abroad, which country would be the best? 
      もし私が海外で英語を勉強するとしたら、どの国が一番良いでしょうか
    2. Even if I should fail, I would (will) try again.  失敗してももう一度やるつもり
 
 

>Top 80.6 Meaning of Subjunctive Mood:

58

Meaning of Subjunctive Mood (仮定法の意味)

 

<あり得る仮定>

  1. 条件:
    1. 直現: If it rains tomorrow, I’ll stay home.
    2. 直現: If you need money, let me know.
    3. 直現: If you’ve finished your work, you can go home.
  2. 丁寧
    1. 直現:  Can we have a talk, if you have time?
    2. 直現:  May I have a look, if you don’t mind?
    3. 仮過:  If I should be very grateful if you would reply as soon as possible.
    4. 仮未:  If you were to take off your hat, we could see the screen completely.
  3. 想定・万一
    1. 仮未: If anyone should call, please let me know.
    2. 仮未: Even if I should fail, I would try again.
    3. 仮未: If this product should fail to give satisfaction, we guarantee to refund your money.  
  4. 極論
    1. 直現:  If a man bites a dog, that’s news.
    2. 仮過:  If the sun were to rise in the west, I would never forsake you.

<あり得ない仮定>

  1. 極論
    1. 直現:  If you are right, then everyone else is wrong.
    2. 仮過:  If I were you, I would start at once. 
  2. 後悔
    1. 仮過完: If I had arrived 3 minutes later, I would have missted the train.
    2. 仮過: If I knew his address, I’d give it to you.
  3. 願望・夢想
    1. 仮過: If you ran all the way, you’d get there in time.
    2. 仮過: If we were a person of common sense, you wouldn’t do such a thing.
    3. 仮過: if my mother were here, I could show her this view.
  4. 妄想
    1. 仮過完:  If I had taken that plane, I would have died from the crash.
 
 

>Top 80.7 Different way of expressing feelings:

59

Subjunctive Mood - Different way of expressing feelings

 

(仮定法: 気持ちの伝え方が異なる)

 
  1. 法の違い:
    1. 直説法: ¶I want my own room.
    2. 命令法: ¶Make my own room.
    3. 仮定法: ¶If I had my own room, I could study more. [現在の事実と反対のことを想像して述べる]
  2. 仮定法過去: [現在の事実の反対を仮定]
    1. If I had money, I would buy this dress. もしお金があれば、このドレスを買うのだが。
    2. If I were you, I would accept the offer. もし私なら、その提案は受けないのに。
    3. If I had caught that plane, I would be dead now. ものあの飛行機に乗っていたら、今頃は…
      [if節が過去完了=もしあの時…だったとしたら]
  3. 仮定法過去完了: [過去の事実の反対を仮定]
    1. If I had known your illness, I would have visited you in the hospital. もしあなたが病気だと知っていたら、私は病院にお見舞いに行ったのに。
    2. If I had had enough money, I could have bought the picture.もしお金を十分もって
      いたら、その絵が買えたのに。
    3. If he were a womna, he might not have said such a thing. もし女性ならばそんなこと言わなかった。
      [if節は過去だけでなく現在も言える ✕If he had been a woman, …と言わない]
  4. 仮定法現在: [米: that節内で動詞の原形; 現在の時点での願望; 英は should+原形]
    1. I demanded that she (should) be back by five. 5時までには戻って来るように要求した。
    2. It’s important that she (should) learn to control her temper. 自分の感情を抑えるのは重要
    3. The policeman gave orders that she (should) produce her identification. 身分証明書を出すように
 
 

>Top 80.8 without if:

60

Subjunctive Mood - without if (仮定法: Ifなし表現)

 
  1. ifの省略:
    1. If I were in your position, I woud not raise an objection to his proposal.
      =Were I in your position, …..
      あなたの立場なら異論を唱えることはしないのが。
    2. If I had been able to speak French, I could have enjoyed shopping in Paris much more.
      =Had I been able to speak French, …
      フランス語が話せたらパリでの買い物をもっと楽しめたのに。
  2. To不定詞で代用:
    1. To hear him speak, you would think he is American.
       =If you heard him speak, …  彼が話すのを聞けば、アメリカ人だと思う。
  3. 副詞句で代用:
    1. With a little more time, I could have helped you.
      =If I had had a little more time, … もっと時間があれば、手伝ってあげたのに
    2. But for his hot temper, he would make a perfect hasband.
      =If he did not have a hot temper, … すぐかっとならなければ、完璧な夫なのに
    3. Without water, nothing could live.
      =If it were not for water, … 水がなければ何も生きてはいけない。
  4. 主語で代用:
    1. A man of sense would not do so.
      =If he were a man of sense, he … 分別のある人ならそうはしないだろうに
  5. 分詞構文で代用:
    1. Born in better times, he would have become famous.
      =If he had been born in better times, …もっと良い時代に生まれていたら有名になっていただろうに
 
 

>Top 80.9 Usage of 'if':

61

Usage of If (Ifの用法)

 
  1. 緩和表現: 条件をつけることで相手が断りやすくする。
    1. Can we have a talk, if you have time?
    2. How about dinner tonight, if you are free.
    3. I can pick pick you up, if you want.
    4. May I have a look, if you don’t mind?
    5. If you ask me, he won’t be able to do the work alone. [丁寧]
  2. 慣用句:
    1. You must do it even if you don’t want to. [たとえいやでも]
    2. Are there any empty seats? If not, we’ll wait for the next train. [もしなければ]
    3. Are you free today? If so, I’ll drop in.
    4. I’ll come only if you do.
  3. 仮定法過去: 現実離れの表現。現在の仮定: そんなことないだろうが…
    1. I would go if I were asked.
    2. You could do better work if you tried.
    3. If I were you, I would start at once.
    4. It would be great if you could help us. [丁寧]
  4. 仮定法過去完了: 仮に、もしも…だったら (過去の反省、後悔)
    1. If you had tried harder, you would have succeeded.
    2. If you had invited her, she would have come,
    3. If I had met her then, we might be married now.
 
 

>Top 90. usage of a/the:

62

Usage of a/an[ə, 強éi/ən, 強ǽn] と the [ð, ðə/ ði/ 強ðiː]

 
 
  1. the: 既知の物・人で、1つに決まる; 焦点, spotlightが当たる; < that
  2. a:    初出の話題で、1つのきまらない; 不特定の;  ≠ one
    1. ¶ Hi, Bob, what’s new?
      – Hi, Jack, I met an Australian in the pub last night, the guy was so funny!
    2. ¶ Jeff, would you open the door, please?
      - Huh, which door? (I can’t open the doors.)
        (after his knocking the door) - OK!
    3. ¶ Look. This is the / a skirt he bought me from Spain.
    4. ¶ His affair was the / a reason why we got divorced.
    5. ¶ I love visiting big cities like NY or London for my holidays.
      - Really? For me, a tropical island is the place for a relaxing holiday.
    6. ¶ Get the / a suitcase from my room.
  3. a/the のニュアンスの違い
    1. a.¶ Love is a reason to get married. ; ¶ Love the reason to get married.
    2. This product is worth buying now.  The quality is certain, so is the price a reason to hesitate?
      - It’s not one of the reasons.  - It’s the reason!  [強 ðíː]
  4. 概念には無冠詞 (∅)
    1. ¶ I love flowers.  (All flowers) 
    2. ¶ Honey is sweet. (All honey); 
    3. ¶ Are nurses well paid here? (nurses in general)
    4. ¶ I like apple(s).; I love coffee.
    5. ¶ She was in hospital. 入院; She was in the hospital. 病院の建物内
    6. ¶ go to school; I'm coming home; It's time to go to bed.; It takes 10 minutes on foot.
  5. 文法: theが使われるとき
    1. 既に現れた人・物
    2. 目の前の人・物: Please pass the pepper.
    3. 唯一の人・物: Have you ever seen an eclipse of the sun?
    4. first, last, onlyと共に: You are the only woman for me!
    5. .…の人々: The rich are not always happy.
    6. 最上級の人・物: The is the highest mountain in this country.
    7. 固有名詞: The Alps/Pacific; The New York Times; Cf. Oxford University; The University of Tokyo
  6. 手品の表現:
    1. Here's a glass, some water and three coins.; 1個のグラスと水と3枚のコインがある。
    2. I pour the water into the glass,; この水をこのグラスに注ぐ
    3. then drop the coins one by one into the water.; それからこのコインを一つづつこの水の中に落とす
 
 

>Top 90.2 Some vs. Any:

63

Some vs. Any (SomeとAnyの違い)

 
  1. some のイメージ:
    ぼんやりとした存在; 言いたくない、興味がないが人・物を示す;
    いくらか, 何らかの, 多少, もある, 約, かなり, なかなか, 某,そのうち…
    1. ¶ I have some American coins.  
    2. ¶I asked the waiter for some ice.
    3. ¶ Can I have some more coffee? 
    4. ¶ Won’t you have some candy?
    5. ¶ Please lend me some money, if you have any.
    6. ¶ How about having dinner at some good restaurant?
    7. ¶ We had to walk some miles.
    8. ¶ She is working for some company in London.
  2. any のイメージ:
    選択の自由を表す; どれでも, 誰でも, いくらか, (否定)何も, どれも, 少しも
    1. Any pupil knows it. 
    2. ¶ The noise prevented me from getting any sleep.
    3. Some doctors will say anything. [医者の中にはどんなことでも言う]
    4. Any doctor will say something.  [どんな医者でも何か言うはず]
    5. ¶ I cannot wait any longer. [もうこれ以上待てない]
    6. ¶ Do you feel any better today? [今日は少し気分がいいですか]
    7. ¶ Is this information of any use? [この情報はいくらか役に立つか]
 
 

>Top 90.4 Usage of that:

64

Usage of 'that' (that の用法)

 
  1. 学校文法: ①指示代名詞(あれ); ②動詞の後の非伝達部; ③名詞の後の同格節;
                      ④関係代名詞
    1. ①that girl; ②I think that…; ③the fact that…; ④the man that(=whom) she loves
    2. He said that that that (that) that man used was wrong.
  2. 意味は、ともかく指し示す
    1. Where have you bought it?  - I bought this at that souvenir shop.
    2. I want to speak with that waiter over there.
    3. Could you pass me the book? – This one? – No, that one over there.
    4. So, we’ll set off (=leave) here at 7:00, okay?  – No way, I can’t get up that early! [そんなに早くには]
    5. 10 km?  I can’t walk that far. [そんなには歩けない]
    6. Could you give me back that money I lent you last week? [先週貸したあのお金を返してくれますか]
    7. I’m certain that he will come.;
  3. 指し示す→導く;つまり(何を考えている/言いたいかと言うと)
    1. Excuse me, sir.  I’m sorry to say that no one is allowed to enter here without a jacket and tie.
    2. I have finished the business trip report that you requested.
    3. I’d like to order that one, … the same food that the adjacent people are taking.
 
 

>Top 91. Past Auxiliary Verbs:

65

Past Auxiliary Verbs (助動詞の過去形)

 
  1. 学校文法: could, would, should, mightの意味は、
    1. ①能力; ②可能性・推量; ③許可・容認; ④推量・疑問; ⑤丁寧・譲歩・婉曲; ⑥遺憾・非難;
      ⑦当然・依頼・軽い命令; ⑧仮定法などいろいろ
    2. これらの表現は”距離をとる”イメージ
  2. I guess.. ; I feel; I’m afraid; It seems..; I suppose..; I think..; I consider…; などをつけて
    距離感を出す。控えめの表現=離れた距離感を出す。
    →現在形: 今望んでいる生々しさが、相手に心理的圧力を与える。
    →過去形: 今すぐにではないですが、できればでよいのですが…という距離感
    1. Pass me the salt. →Will (Can) you pass me the salt? →Would (Could) you pass me the salt?
    2. I hoped you would help me.
    3. Excuse me. Can I possibly trouble you for blanket, please. [英国風?]
  3. さらに格調高いプロ的な丁寧表現:
    1. Would you mind fastening your seat belt?  ¶Would you care for a cup of tea?
    2. I was wondering if you could help me with this?
    3. How long did you want to stay, sir?
    4. It would be greatly appreciated if you could send me the contract today.
    5. Unfortunately, I regret to inform you that we could not accept the proposal you offered.
    6. If I were you I wouldn’t do such a thing.
 
 

>Top 91.1 Politeness:

66

丁寧表現 (Politeness)

   
  66b
Summary:
  1. I believe you should trust yourself. 自分を信じるべき
    1. I totally agree with your opinion, but I'm afraid you've misunderstood my intention. ご意見はもっとも
    2. Doctor advised me to tell everything to my family. [権威+間接話法]
    3. There seems to be no error on his side. 誤りはないようです。
    4. I suppose you need to understand the terminology. 理解される必要があります
    5. It's likely that he will come. 彼はやってくると思う
    6. I hope you don't mind my asking, but what happened. お差し支えなければ伺いたい
    7. Are you hungry? Do you want to get some lunch? 食べに行きませんか
  2. Let's try that new restaurant. -Why not? いいね!
    1. Do you happen to have an extra copy? もしかして
    2. Can I [May I ] have some milk? いただけます?
    3. Oh, I really like your shoes. - thanks. I just bought them last week. 素敵ですね。
    4. Let me ask you a question? 質問よろしいですか?
    5. I'm sorry to bother you, but can you go the post office and mail this package? 悪いんだけど
    6. Shall I call a cab for you ? お呼びしましょうか
    7. I guess we should remind them of the deadline. しておいた方がいいです。
    8. No thank you. I can manage.
    9. It's very kind of you to help. -Oh, it's nothing.
  3. I'm not sure. I think it would be better if you asked him directly.
    1. Do you mind my asking about your family? お伺いしてもいいですか
      1. Would you mind my smoking here? ここでタバコ吸っても
    2. I would think it very carefully if I were you. もし私なら
    3. Could you possibly spare me a few minutes before the meeting? お時間いただきたい
    4. Could I get a glass of water, please? -Certainly. I'll be right back with that.
    5. It would be difficult, if not impossible to promote this plan.
    6. I don't like doing it, but if I just can't help it. できればしたくないのですが、つい...
  4. I'd like to ask you one thing. 一つお願いが
    1. I'd be more than happy to help you. もしよろしければ喜んで
    2. It might be a good idea to talk to a doctor. するのもいいかも
    3. How about going on a ski trip with us? -I wish I could, but I already have other plans. ご一緒できれば
    4. I was just wondering if you could possibly change the schedule. していただけないでしょうか
    5. I wonder who that man was.; I wonder what happened; I wonder why he refused.
    6. Could you do me a favor and check that out before the meeting? お願いがあるのですが
    7. What happened yesterday? - I'm sorry, but I'd rather not say. すみませんが、お話は控えたい
    8. Would you mind calling him to the phone? -No, I wouldn't mind. [=Certainly not =No, not at all]
      1. Do you mind not biting your nails. どうかやめてください。
 
  67
  1. actually
  2. advise
  3. afraid
  4. agree
  5. all right
  6. apologize
  7. appreciate
  8. ask
  9. believe
  10. better
  11. bother
  12. can
  13. could
  14. chance
  15. disagree
  16. favor
  17. forgive
  18. good
  19. grateful
  20. great
  21. guess
  22. had better
  23. happen
  24. hate
  25. have to
  26. help
  27. hope
  28. how
  29. idea
  30. if
  31. kind
  32. know
  33. let
  34. let's
  35. like
  36. love
  37. may
  38. might
  39. maybe
  40. mind
  41. must
  42. need
  43. nice
  44. ought
  45. perhaps
  46. please
  47. possible
  48. possibly
  49. rather
  50. recommend
  51. seem
  52. shall
  53. should
  1. 英語にも敬語表現がある。敬語の使い方 (Politeness)の用法。相手との緊急・状況・場面に応じた表現
  2. >Top Actually: 相手の発言を否定する場合に、和らげる働き。
    また新しい発言、考えの訂正、話題の転換など軽く相手の注意をひくときにときに用いる
    1. So, when did you get married? - Well, actually, we're not married. 実はまだ結婚していないのです。
    2. How did they respond? - Well, actually, I haven't contacted them yet. 実はまだ連絡していないのです。
  3. Advise: 直説法は、直接的で権威に基づいた専門家の口調。仮定法や間接的表現にすると控えな助言となる。
    1. I advise you to do so. →I would advise you to do so.
    2. I advise you to have a medical checkup.
    3. ♣語法:
      1. 命令文を間接話法にするとき
        1. The doctor said to me, "Drink more milk."
          →The doctor advided me to drink more milk.
    4. ♦熟語:
      1. You would be well advised to consult a layer. 弁護士に相談なさったら
  4. Afraid: 恐れて、怖がって、ためらって
    1. I'm afraid ...は反対意見や誤りの指摘の緩和表現。"残念ながら" "あいにく"の気持ちを表す。
      相手に配慮したやんわりとした言い方
      1. I'm afraid I can't agree with you about that. その点は同意できかねます。
      2. I'm afraid you've misunderstood the question. 質問を誤解なさっているようで
      3. Can you explain that in more detail?
        - I'm sorry, but I'm afraid I can't. It's rather confidential. やや内密なことなので
      4. Mom, I'm afraid I have bad news. 悪いニュースがあるんですが
    2. ♣語法:
      1. afraid to do 怖くでできない
        1. I was afraido to go there. 怖くて行けなかった。
      2. afraid of doing ということになりはしないかと恐れている
        1. She was afraido of doing hurting his feelings. 感情を害さないかと恐れていた。
  5. Agree: 同意は相手にとって好ましいことなので、同意する場合は強調し、
    反論の場合でも部分的には賛成もあり得ることを言う。
    1. I totally/completely agree with you.; I couldn't agree with you more. ; I agree with you 100%.
    2. I bet the Los Angels Dodgers win this year. - Year! I couldn't agree more! 全く同感
    3. I agree in general, but I think there are exceptions.
    4. I agree with you, but I'm afraid some people will be against it.
    5. ♦熟語:
      1. agree that
        1. They agreed that my plan was was better.
      2. agree to disagree 互いに意見が違うことを認める
      3. agreeably 快く、愉快に
        1. I was agreeably surprised. うれしい驚きを感じた。
  6. All right: 申し分なく、ちゃんと、まずまず
    1. Is it all right if...? /Would it be all right if...? は、相手が応じるとは断定できない場合 (相手に都合の悪い、迷惑のかかる場合など) 遠慮がちに尋ねる場合の表現
      1. Is it alright if I smoke here? タバコを吸ってもよろしいでしょうか
      2. Would it be all right if I joined you? ご一緒してもよろしいですか
      3. Is it all right if I come over tomorrow afternoon? 明日の午後お邪魔してもいいでしょうか
    2. ♦熟語:
      1. All right already: (しつこい質問に対して) もうわかったから、いい加減にして
      2. That's [It's] alright. いいんですよ。
        1. I'm sorry. It's my fault.
          - That's all right. Don't give it another thought. いいですよ。お気になさらないで。
 
  67
  1. actually
  2. advise
  3. afraid
  4. agree
  5. all right
  6. apologize
  7. appreciate
  8. ask
  9. believe
  10. better
  11. bother
  12. can
  13. could
  14. chance
  15. disagree
  16. favor
  17. forgive
  18. good
  19. grateful
  20. great
  21. guess
  22. had better
  23. happen
  24. hate
  25. have to
  26. help
  27. hope
  28. how
  29. idea
  30. if
  31. kind
  32. know
  33. let
  34. let's
  35. like
  36. love
  37. may
  38. might
  39. maybe
  40. mind
  41. must
  42. need
  43. nice
  44. ought
  45. perhaps
  46. please
  47. possible
  48. possibly
  49. rather
  50. recommend
  51. seem
  52. shall
  53. should
  54. sorry
  55. suggest
  56. suppose
  57. tell
  58. thank you
  59. think
  60. trouble
  61. very
  62. want
  63. what
  64. why
  65. will
  66. would
  67. wish
  68. wonder
  1. Apologize: 格式ばった公式の場面で使われる。客観的な謝罪→強調のdo
    →更に深く謝罪→反省内容を具体的に述べて反省する
    1. We apologize for the inconvenience. ご迷惑をおかけすることをお詫びします。
    2. We are terribly sorry. We'll take care of it right away. We do applogize.
    3. Please accept our sincere apologies for the trouble this matter has caused you.
      I shouldn't have criticized your proposal before checking the facts. I'm terribly sorry.
    4. ♣語法:
      1. 会話では "Please accept"が省略されることもある。またapologiesと複数形が多い
    5. ♦熟語:
      1. make no apologies [apology] for that 別に悪いとは思わない。
      2. demand an apology 謝罪を要求する。
  2. Appreciate: やや改まった感謝の常用句。Thank youと重ねる場合も多い。
    仮定法のwouldと共に改まった響きで、間接的表現で、相手に配慮した言い方。
    但し、軽い頼み事では、院議無礼に聞こえることもある。
    1. Mr. Mayor, we appreciate your making time for us today. お時間いただき感謝申し上げます。
    2. I appreciate your offer, but I think I can manage. [断る際にも感謝を述べる]
    3. We've prepared your usual room for you, sir. - Oh, thank you. I appreciate it.
    4. I'd appreciate it if you would check may application before I sent it off. [仮定法wouldは更に相手に配慮]
    5. It would be appreciated if you could return this form by March 10. ご返送いただければ幸甚です。
    6. ♠語源: <L. ade- =to + pretium =price 値段をつける
  3. Ask: 依頼の場合も、直接的 <間接的 <依頼の前置き付き
    1. I'll have to ask you to keep this secret. [直接的]
    2. May/Can/Could I ask you to take a look at this? [間接的]
    3. May I ask who's calling, please? どちら様でしょうか [電話応対]
    4. ♣語法:
      1. I said to them, "What shall I do?" →I asked them what to do. [間接話法にするとき]
      2. I said to Mary, "Do you know the truth?" →I asked Mary if [whether] she knew the truth.
      3. They asked 200 dollars for the suit. 200ドル請求した。
      4. There's something I'd like to ask you to do.... [依頼の前置き] お願いしたいことがあるんだけど
      5. Do I really love her? -Tom asked himself. 自問した。
      6. Don't ask me! そんなこと知らないよ
      7. You may have it for the asking. 要求されればただで
      8. He is too pusy , if you ask me. 言わせてもられれば
      9. May [Might] I ask ...? お尋ねしたいのですが [丁寧だが怒っている]
  4. Believe: 意見・意志を述べるときの主張の強さの緩和表現
    1. I believe you should trust yourself. 自分を信じるべきだと思うけど
    2. Would you like another serving? - Thank you but I believe I'll pass. どうも、でも結構です。
    3. I don't believe that's accurate. それは正確ではないと思いますが
    4. ♦語法:
      1. I believe in you. [あなたを信頼している]→I believe you. [あなたの話を信じる]
    5. ♦熟語:
      1. believe it or not まさかと思うだろうが
      2. Before we caught him cheating on the exam, we would never have blieved it of him. 思いもしなかった
      3. Believe me, it will work. -OK. I'll take your word for it. うまくいきますよ。信じて下さい。
      4. The children are making believe (that) they are pirates. 海賊ごっこをする
      5. You would not believe ... まさかと思うだろうが
  5. >Top Better: would/ mightを用いて、間接的で控えめな柔らかな響きの助言・提案表現
    1. Maybe it would be better not to disturb her. 邪魔をしないほうがよろしいかと
    2. I'm not sure. I think it would be better if you asked him directly. 彼に直接聞かれたらいかがかと
    3. ♦熟語:
      1. I like her all the better for that. それだから一層好きになった
      2. I could only take a cold shower, but it was better than nothing. ないよりまし
      3. The party in power is corrupt, but the opposition is little better. 同じようなものだ
      4. A man who lives off his relatives is no better thatn a beggar. たかって暮らす人は乞食同然だ
      5. Dick is aware, none better than he, of the man's contempt for him. 誰よりもよくわかっている
      6. If the rain stops, so much the better. 雨がやめばなおさら結構
      7. the better part of a day 一日の大半
      8. You should write a letter to her, or better still, go and see her. いやむしろ
      9. You wold do better to leave it unsaid. 言わないでいた方がいい
      10. I feel better after hearing that. それを聞いてほっとした
      11. You should know better than to trust him. 信用してはいけないこと位わかりそうなもの
      12. He doesn't know any better. 知恵はせいぜいその程度だ
      13. I was going to ask him to help, but I thought better of it.
      14. Her anger got the better of her. 怒りのこられきれず爆発した。
      15. better half 妻 [滑稽]
      16. He'd be better-off changing his job. 収入が増える→転職したほうがいい。
      17. better-known; well-knownの比較級
  6. Bother: 依頼の前置きとして、相手に負担をかけることに申し訳ない気持ちで謝罪するとき
    1. I'm sorry to bother you this late. こんなに遅くにお邪魔して
    2. Thanks for your help. I'm sorry to bother you when you're busy. - No problem. 忙しい時にごめんなさい
    3. I hate to bother you, but there's someone here to see you. お話中申し訳ありませんがお客様がお見えです。
    4. I'm sorry to bother you, but can you go to the post office and mail this package? 悪いんだけど...
      - Right now? I'm afraid I'm tied up now. 今すぐですか。今手が離せないですが。
    5. May I bother you for a moment? -Sure. What do you need?ちょっとよろしいでしょうか。-ええ何でしょうか
    6. Shall I wait for you? - No, don't bother. いえお構いなく
    7. ♦熟語:
      1. I don't bother about what other people think. 他人がどう思おうと気にしない。
      2. I had a bit bother (in) finding his house. 探すのに少し苦労しました。
      3. It's no bother at all. ちっとも迷惑ではありません。
      4. It saved me the bother of going out. 出かける手間が省けた
 
  68
  1. actually
  2. advise
  3. afraid
  4. agree
  5. all right
  6. apologize
  7. appreciate
  8. ask
  9. believe
  10. better
  11. bother
  12. can
  13. could
  14. chance
  15. disagree
  16. favor
  17. forgive
  18. good
  19. grateful
  20. great
  21. guess
  22. had better
  23. happen
  24. hate
  25. have to
  26. help
  27. hope
  28. how
  29. idea
  30. if
  31. kind
  32. know
  33. let
  34. let's
  35. like
  36. love
  37. may
  38. might
  39. maybe
  40. mind
  41. must
  42. need
  43. nice
  44. ought
  45. perhaps
  46. please
  47. possible
  48. possibly
  49. rather
  50. recommend
  51. seem
  52. shall
  53. should
  54. sorry
  55. suggest
  56. suppose
  57. tell
  58. thank you
  59. think
  60. trouble
  61. very
  62. want
  63. what
  64. why
  65. will
  66. would
  67. wish
  68. wonder
  1. Can:
    1. ■依頼表現:
      1. Can you? [直接的依頼]
        1. Andy, Can you help me with the dishes? -OK, I'm coming. 皿洗い手伝ってよ。今いくよ
        2. Can you tell us what happened.
      2. Could you? [丁寧な直接的依頼]
      3. Can't you? [否定疑問形、やや押し付けがましい]
        1. Can't you be more supportive? もっと協力してよ
      4. Maybe/Perhaps you can... [間接的依頼]
    2. ■許可表現: ...してもいいですか
      1. Can I ...?; 断られる可能性が低い場合
        1. Mom, can I have some milk? -Sure, Just wait till I finish frying this egg.
        2. Can I take your plate, sir? Yes, thank you. お皿をお下げしても..
      2. 以下の順で、直接的表現〜 (相手に選択の余地を与えるような) 間接的表現:
        1. Let me ...
        2. Can I/Could I..?/May I ...? ; Can I have your name, please?
        3. Do/Would you mind if I ...?/ Is it all right if I ...?
        4. Do you think I could ...?/ Would it be possible for me to ...?
        5. I was wondering if I could ...?
    3. ■申し出表現:
      1. Can I ... (for you)?; やや控えめな申し出の表現
        1. Can I help you? 何にいたしましょうか
        2. Can I get you something to drink? 飲み物を何か持ってきましょうか
        3. It's starting to rain. Can I give you a ride? 車で送りましょうか
        4. I'm sorry. Let me make it up to you. Can I buy you lunch? お昼おごらせてよ
      2. I can ... 控えめな申し出
        1. What's wrong? I can talk about it later. それについては後で話しましょう。
    4. ♠語源: <OE know how to ...の仕方を知っている
    5. ♣語法:
      1. can, may, might, couldの違い:
        1. can: 一般的・理論的可能性; 経験・知識に基づく
          1. The road can be blocked. 通行止めのこともある
        2. may, might, could: 現実の可能性; 個々の状況からの判断
          1. The road may be blocked. これから通行止めになるかも知れない
          2. According to the ration, it may [might, could] rain tonight. ✕can
    6. ♦熟語:
      1. Jim said he wanted to marry me, and I'm as happy as can be. この上なく幸せ
      2. I can but try. ともかくやってみるだけ
      3. Seeing the scene, I could not but laugh. 笑わずにはいられない
      4. I cannot thank you enogh.お礼の申し上げもありません。
      5. You can't be too careful about your health. 健康の気をつけすぎということはない。
      6. You cannot read this book without shedding tears.涙なしでは読めない。
      7. Can I use your car tonight? - Sorry, no can do. 残念、無理だね [滑稽]
  2. Could:
    1. ■依頼表現:
      1. Could I ...?; Can I...よりも丁寧な表現; 相手が断る可能性が比較的低い場合
        1. Could you mail this letter on your way home? - Of course. 帰りに手紙出してともらえる?
        2. I need someone to correct my English. Could you help me? 英文チェックをお願いしたいけど...
      2. 以下の順で、直接的表現〜間接的表現
        1. Please...; Will you ...?; Can you...?
        2. Would you ...?; Could you...?; Do you mind ...ing?
        3. Do you think you could...?; Is there any chance you could...?
        4. I appreciate if you could...
        5. It was wondering if you could...?
    1. ■許可表現: ...してもよろしいでしょうか
      1. Could I call back later? 後でかけ直してもいいでしょうか
      2. If I could just ad one last thing. -Sure. 最後に一つ付け足したいのですが
      3. Excuse me. Could I get a glass of water, please? - Certainly, I'll be right back with that. お水をもう一杯
    2. ■申し出表現: ...できますが
      1. Could I take a message?
      2. what should I do? - I have a friend who is a lawyer. You could consult her. 友達の弁護士に相談できますが
      3. I'm quite busy today. Perhaps I could see you tomorrow. 明日お会いするということで...
      4. I thought maybe we could get together sometime this week.
    3. ■推量・可能性
      1. Will you answer the phone? It could be your mother. あなたの母上かも
      2. He couldn't be driving the car himself. 運転しているはずがない
      3. Could it be true? 本当だろうか
    4. ♣語法:
      1. 直説法過去形: Meg said (that) she couldn't swim. 泳げないと言った。
      2. 仮定法過去: If I had no parents, I couldn't go to college. もし両親がいなかったら大学に行けないだろう。
      3. I could've visited there if I had more time. もし時間があったらそこを訪れることができたのに。
    5. ♦熟語:
      1. Do you think that girl will go out with me if I ask her? - Could be. かもね。
      2. Have another cup of coffee. - No, thanks. I couldn't. いや、もう結構です。
 
  69
  1. chance
  2. disagree
  3. favor
  4. forgive
  5. good
  6. grateful
  7. great
  8. guess
  9. had better
  10. happen
  11. hate
  12. have to
  13. help
  14. hope
  15. how
  16. idea
  17. if
  18. kind
  19. know
  20. let
  21. let's
  22. like
  23. love
  24. may
  25. might
  26. maybe
  27. mind
  28. must
  29. need
  30. nice
  31. ought
  32. perhaps
  33. please
  34. possible
  35. possibly
  36. rather
  1. Chance: もしかして...でしょうか?; 控えめにものを尋ねるときの表現。
    悲観的な予測を述べることで遠慮がちな響きとなる。押し付けを弱めて丁寧な印象にする。
    1. ■依頼の表現
      1. I wonder if by any chance you could lend me some money. もしやお金を少々お借りできたらと
      2. Excuse me. Are you Mr. white, by any chance? ひょっとしてホワイトさんですか。
        - Yes, I am. I'm glad you recognized me. そうです。わかっていただいてうれしいです。
    2. ♦熟語:
      1. He'll take all your money, given half a chance. 少しでも機会を与えると
      2. Nothing was left to chance. 何事も成り行き任せにしなかった。
      3. He looked around on the chance of finding something valuable.
        いいものが見つかるかも知れないと思って
      4. It chanced that I was absent from school that day. たまたまその日は休んでした。
      5. I chanced to meet her in the theater. 偶然彼女に会った。
      6. The company has decided to take a chance on developing video phone technology.
        会社はビデオフォン技術の開発に賭けてみることを決定した。
      7. The chances are that he'll win the game. 多分彼は試合に勝つだろう。
  2. Disagree: 意見が合わない; 直接的に相手の面子に配慮していないので失礼な感じを与える。
    押し付けを弱めた言い方が必要となる。
    1. I disagree with you.
    2. →I am afraid [I think] I have to disagree with you. 本意ではないですが反対せざるを得ません
    3. I respectfully disagree. 恐れながら反対いたします。
    4. I understand what you are saying, but I have to disagree with you on that. ご意見はわかりますが、その点については賛成しかねますが
    5. That's a good idea, but I disagree on one point. 良い考えですが、一点だけ反対です。
    6. ♦熟語:
      1. Milk disagrees with me. 牛乳は私の体に合わない。
      2. Disagreeable job. いやな仕事
      3. She had a disagreement with her father. 親と言い争いをした。
      4. There is a serious disagreement between the two parties about the defense system. 深刻な対立がある。
  3. Favor: 頼み事をする場合の前置き表現; 相手に心の準備をする時間を与える。
    1. Can I ask you a favor? -Sure, what is it. ちょっとお願いしてもいいでしょうか
      I think I left my wallet at home. Could you lend me some money to buy lunch 昼ごはん代貸してくれますか
    2. Could you do me a favor and check that out before the meeting? 会議の前にそれを調べてもらえる?
    3. Mom, I have to ask you a big favor, I really need your help. [大きな] 頼みがあって、ぜひう力になって欲しい。
    4. ♦熟語:
      1. Do me a favor and be quiet. 頼むからお静かに
      2. The city abandoned streetcars in favor of buses. 路面電車を廃止してバスにした。
      3. Helen is in his favor. 彼のお気に入りだ。
      4. You won't be doing yourself any farvors by putting off your homework. 後回しにしていいことはない。
      5. fall out of favor 人気がなくなる、廃れる。
      6. Fortune favors the brave. 運は勇者たちの味方
 
     
  70
  1. actually
  2. advise
  3. afraid
  4. agree
  5. all right
  6. apologize
  7. appreciate
  8. ask
  9. believe
  10. better
  11. bother
  12. can
  13. could
  14. chance
  15. disagree
  16. favor
  17. forgive
  18. good
  19. grateful
  20. great
  21. guess
  22. had better
  23. happen
  24. hate
  25. have to
  26. help
  27. hope
  28. how
  29. idea
  30. if
  31. kind
  32. know
  33. let
  34. let's
  35. like
  36. love
  37. may
  38. might
  39. maybe
  40. mind
  41. must
  42. need
  43. nice
  44. ought
  45. perhaps
  46. please
  47. possible
  48. possibly
  49. rather
  50. recommend
  51. seem
  52. shall
  53. should
  54. sorry
  55. suggest
  56. suppose
  57. tell
  58. thank you
  59. think
  60. trouble
  61. very
  62. want
  63. what
  64. why
  65. will
  66. would
  67. wish
  68. wonder
  1. Forgive: 相手に大きな迷惑や感情を傷つけたような場合の深刻な謝罪のときに用いる。
    1. Forgive me for what I said last night. I didn't mean to hurt your feelings. あなたを傷つけるつもりはなかった。
    2. I'm sorry. It was all may fault. Will you forgive me? 全部私のせいだ。許してくれる?
    3. Forgive me (for doing), but ... 陳謝のときの前置き表現
      1. Forgive me for saying so, but I don't think it's the best solution. こんなこと言うのは失礼ですが
      2. Forgive me for interrupting, but may I ask you a question. お話を遮ってすみませんが,
    4. ♣語法: いろいろな許し:
      1. forgive =個人的な同情で許すこと: I'll forgive the boy for breaking the window. 窓ガラスを割る
      2. pardon =公的な許し、または大げさな許し: grant a pardon 恩赦を与える
      3. excuse=些細な失礼: Please excuse my hat. 帽子を被ったままで失礼
    5. ♦熟語:
      1. You could be forgiven for thinking so. そう思うのも無理はない。
      2. ask for [beg] forgiveness. 許しを求める
  2. Good: good単独では、可もなく不可もなくのニュアンスになり得るので、so, really, veryなど強調する
    1. Did you have a chance to read my essay yet? - Yes, it's really good. The idea are well organized and clearly expressed. ええ、エッセイはとてもよかったです。
    2. ♣語法:
      1. goodの代わりに、wonderful, excellent, great, fantastic, incredible, perfect, brilliant, amazingなどで好意的な評価をより強調できる
        1. Thank you for the wonderful dinner. You're a great cook!
          - Thanks. I'm glad you enjoyed it. すばらしい食事 をありがとうございました。
  3. Grateful: 公的な立場や手紙などで用いる。thank youより改まった感謝の表現
    1. I am truly grateful to you for you constant support. 日頃のご支援に感謝します。
    2. I [We] would be grateful if you... もし... していただけるならありがたく思います。
      1. I would be most grateful if you could send us a copy of you book. 一部お送りいただければ幸甚です。
    3. ♣語法:
      1. grateful: 人の親切に対する感謝
        1. grateful smile: 感謝を示すうれしそうな笑顔
        2. We are grateful with the results.
      2. thankful: 神・自然・運命に対して、自分の幸運を感謝
        1. We are thankful for the good harvest.
  4. >Top Great: goodより強い肯定的評価。相手を褒めるときや積極的な賛同を示すときに使用。
    1. You look great in that dress. - Thank you. You look gorgeous too, Ann. ドレス似合っている。君も素敵だ
    2. How about tomorrow at 4? -Sounds great. See you tomorrow, then. 明日4時は如何。-いいですね。
    3. It would be great if you could make it. 都合をつけていただければありがたいです。
    4. ♦熟語:
      1. great and small 貴賤を問わず
      2. great and good お歴々 [滑稽]
      3. Your help will be greatly appreciated. ご援助は大変ありがたい
  5. Guess:
    1. I guess ... 意見・主張を述べる際に和らげる緩和表現。
      1. I guess he probably hasn't read the letter. -Why don't you think so? 多分手紙を読んでいないよ
      2. I guess we should remind them of the deadline. 締切の確認連絡を入れておいた方がいいよ
      3. That's right, I guess. そういうことだと思う、多分。[文末で付加的に来る場合もある]
    2. ♦熟語:
      1. Guess what! - What? - Jane got married. ねえ、聞いてよ
      2. I might have guessed ... ...だろうと思っていた。べつに驚かない。
      3. keep ... guessing 人をはらはらさせる。気をもませる
      4. a fair-guess 妥当な推測
      5. It's anybody's guess when she'll come. 彼女はいつ来るか誰にもわからない。
      6. Your guess is as good as mine. (あなたと同様) 私にもわからない。
      7. guesstimate 当て推量 <guess +estimate
  6. Had better: 否定形はhad better not; 否定疑問形は Hadn't +S +better
    Hadn't you better ask him first? まずは彼にたずねるべきではないか
    1. You had better: 直接的な命令・忠告で、相手に選択の余地を与えない強制度が高い。
      (そうしないと悪い結果が生じる)
      1. You'd better be careful, or you'll hurt yourself. 気をつけないと怪我するよ
      2. You'd better hurry, sir! Your flight leaves in a few minutes. 急いでください!
      3. Ed, you'd better apologize to your dad. お父さんにすぐ謝りなさい
      4. (You'd) better take your umbrella. It might rain this afternoon. -Sure. Thanks. [親しい相手への軽い忠告]
      5. You'd better be telling the truth! 本当のことを言った方が身のため [脅迫した意味]
    2. maybe, I thinkをつけることで緩和表現:
      1. I think you'd better go home now. your family will be worried. もう帰った方がいいかも。
    3. ♣語法:
      1. We'd better go now, hadn't we? [付加疑問ではbetterなし]
      2. had betterは"...した方がよい"よりも"...しないと困ったことになる"という緊迫感がある
  7. Happen: 結果として生じる, 身に降りかかる; 偶然...する
    1. Do [Would] you happen to...? 控えめな尋ね方。"もし偶然...なら"という遠慮がちな響きの表現。
      相手がNo.と答える場合に、互いの気まずさを和らげる効果。
      1. Do you happen to remember her name? -No, I'm afraid not. ひょっとして彼女の名前覚えてる?いや...
      2. Do you happen to have an extra copy? もしかして余分のコピーをお持ちですか。
    2. ♣語法:
      1. It happened that we were in London then. たまたまロンドンにいた。
      2. It (just) so happened that I had no money with me. たまたまお金をもっていなかった。
      3. 類語:
        1. happen 一般的な語; come about くだけた言い方
        2. occur: やや格式ばった語
        3. take place: 予定されていないことが起こる
        4. break out: 戦争・火事などが突発的に起こ
    3. ♦熟語:
      1. Anything can happen. 何が起こってもおかしくない (予想できない)
      2. As it happens I won't be in Tokyo next week. (≒ by chance) あいにく東京におりません。
      3. These things happen. こんなことは起こるものさ (気にするな)
      4. What [Whatever] happened to ...?...はどうなったんだ。
      5. There are many strange happenings during that period. 多くの奇妙な事件が起こった。
  8. Hate:
    1. I hate to bother [trouble] you, but ... 依頼の前置きによる緩和表現
      1. I hate to trouble you, but could you email me a copy of the schedule? お手数かけて恐縮ですが
        -Of course. I'll send you an attachment this afternoon. 承知しました。
    2. I hate to say [tell you ] this, but ... 相手が聞きたくないことを切り出す際の緩和表現
      1. I hate to say this, but the chief isn't happy with your plan. 言いにくいことですが、主任は満足していない
      2. I hate to disagree with you, but I don't believe so. 反対したくはないけど、私はそうは思わない
    3. ♣語法:
      1. I hate to get to the theater late. (これからの可能性として)遅れるのはいやだ。
      2. I hate getting to the theater late. (遅刻の経験を想定して)またそういうことをするのはいやだ。
      3. We were filled with hate for [of] war. 戦争に対する憎しみで一杯
 
  71
  1. actually
  2. advise
  3. afraid
  4. agree
  5. all right
  6. apologize
  7. appreciate
  8. ask
  9. believe
  10. better
  11. bother
  12. can
  13. could
  14. chance
  15. disagree
  16. favor
  17. forgive
  18. good
  19. grateful
  20. great
  21. guess
  22. had better
  23. happen
  24. hate
  25. have to
  26. help
  27. hope
  28. how
  29. idea
  30. if
  31. kind
  32. know
  33. let
  34. let's
  35. like
  36. love
  37. may
  38. might
  39. maybe
  40. mind
  41. must
  42. need
  43. nice
  44. ought
  45. perhaps
  46. please
  47. possible
  48. possibly
  49. rather
  50. recommend
  51. seem
  52. shall
  53. should
  54. sorry
  55. suggest
  56. suppose
  57. tell
  58. thank you
  59. think
  60. trouble
  61. very
  62. want
  63. what
  64. why
  65. will
  66. would
  67. wish
  68. wonder
  1. Have to: will, shall, may, haveなどの後では mustの代わりにhave toを用いる。
    1. You'll have to study harder next year. 来年はもっと勉強しなければ。
    2. You have to ... 権限のある人からの直接的で強制力の強い命令・忠告; 社会的・規範的義務を表す。
      1. You have to clean your room, Bob. - I know, Mom.
      2. You have to take off your shoes before you go in the house.
      3. You have to attend class every day. [一般的な決まりや手順を説明]
      4. You have to register to participate. [同上]
      5. Would you like to come? [そうしたくないけでやむを得ず; 誘いを断るとき]
        -I wish I could, but I have to visit my parents this weekend. 実家に帰らなくちゃならないんだ
      6. Well, I'll have to disagree with that. [自分としては応じたいけど状況が許さない]
        そうですね。それには反対しなけばなりませんね。
    3. don't have to [have to の否定 ≒need not]
      1. Meg doesn't have to leave till six. 6時まで発つ必要はない
    4. You have to ...[相手が断らないことが予測できる場合の強い勧誘表現]
      1. You have to come visit me in Tokyo. ぜひ東京に遊びに来てね。
      2. This book is great. You have to read it. ぜひ読んでみて下さい
    5. only have to do (= have only to do) ...しさえすればよい
      1. You only have to wait. ただ待てばよいのです。
    6. ♣語法:
      1. Since he is an authority, what he said has to be true. 彼の言ったことは本当に違いない。
      2. Judging from the noise, there has to have been an explosion. 爆発があったに違いない。
    7. ♦熟語:
      1. I have to say ... ...と言わざるを得ない。
      2. You only have to wait. あなたはただ待てばよい。
  2. Help:
    1. Can [May] I help you? 何かお手伝いできることはありますか。mayの方が改まった言い方
    2. Can [May] I help you with something? どうのようなご用件で [What can I do for you? より丁寧]
    3. ABC Services. How may I help you? [ビジネス電話で] ご用件を承ります
    4. ♣語法:
      1. S+help+O+原形不定詞が普通だが、to不定詞も用いる。受動態はto不定詞。
        1. He helped her carry the parcels. (=He helped her to carry ...)
        2. She had to be helped to sign her name.
      2. Can I help you? はWhat can I do for you?より丁寧な言い方。
        この答えは、- Thank you, I'm already being helped.
      3. The medicine helped (to) cure his illness. 薬は効いた
    5. ♦熟語:
      1. I could not help falling in love with her. 恋せずにはいられなかった。
      2. Every little (bit) helps. 塵も積もれば
      3. I cannot help it if he doesn't come. 彼が来なくても僕のせいではない。
      4. She couldn't help herself. 感情を抑えられなかった。
      5. Can I borrow a pen? -Help yourself. どうぞご自由に
      6. Help yourself, please. どうぞご自由にお取り下さい。
      7. I don't want to go by plane if I can help it. できえば飛行機に乗りたくない。
      8. It can't [couldn't] be helped. どうしようもなかった。
      9. Don't spend more than you can help. なるべくお金を使わないように
        1. She never does more work than she can help. 必要最低限のことしかしない。
      10. 介護編:
        1. We helped our grandfather into the car. 手を貸して車に乗せた。
        2. Laura helped her drunken husband off with his overcoat. 手を貸してコートを脱がせた。
        3. Let me help you on with your overcoat. コートを着せてあげましょう。
        4. Please help me out with these problems. この問題を解くのを手伝って下さい。
        5. He helped the old man up from the chair. 立ち上がるのに手を貸した。
  3. Hope:
    1. I hope ... 遠慮がちに自分の希望を伝える表現
      1. I was hoping we could go together. ご一緒できればと思っておりました。
      2. I hope I'm not interrupting. -Not at all. おじゃまでなければいいのですが
      3. I hope you'll understand. ご理解いただければ幸いです。
      4. I hope you don't mind my asking, but what happened? お差し支えなければ伺いたいのですが
    2. ♦熟語:
      1. I should [would] hope so (too). 私もそうなればよいと思います。
      2. Help with the dishes. 皿洗い手伝ってね。
      3. To be a Negro in America is hope against hope. かなえられない望み (King牧師)
      4. Business is not so good, but let's hope for the best. その内良くなることを期待しよう。
      5. He left home early in hope(s) of getting a job. 仕事がみつかることを期待して
      6. I'd like to see Hamlet next week. - Not a hope, unless you know the producer. それは無理だ
        (英=Some hope!, What a hope!) [滑稽]
 
  72
  1. how
  2. idea
  3. if
  4. kind
  5. know
  6. let
  7. let's
  8. like
  9. love
  10. may
  11. might
  12. maybe
  13. mind
  14. must
  15. need
  16. nice
  17. ought
  18. perhaps
  19. please
  20. possible
  21. possibly
  22. rather
  23. recommend
  24. seem
  25. shall
  26. should
  27. sorry
  28. suggest
  29. suppose
  30. tell
  31. thank you
  32. think
  33. trouble
  34. very
  35. want
  36. what
  37. why
  38. will
  39. would
  40. wish
  41. wonder
  1. How: 提案・勧誘・助言など比較的直接的な表現。
    相手が応じる可能性が高いときや親しいときに用いることが多い。
    1. tell, ask, know, wonder などを用いた間接疑問文; やわらかく遠慮がちな響き
      1. Can you tell me how to use this? どうやって使うか教えてもらえますか
      2. I wonder how you feel about that? それについてどう思っておられますか
    2. How about doing? 提案・助言。直接的な表現なので相手が応じる可能性が高い場合、親しい場合
      1. How about going on a picnic? -Sure. Where do you want to go? ピクニックに行くのはどう?
      2. Then what should I do? -Well, how about asking Larry? ラリーに聞いてみたら?
      3. This place is a real mess. How about cleaning up a little? 少しかたづけたら?
    3. ♣語法: 感嘆表現
      1. How clever he is! [形容詞か副詞がくる]
      2. What a clever man! [形容詞+名詞がくる]
      3. How (hard) the wind is blowing! [但し、副詞は省略可]
    4. ♦熟語:
      1. How are you doing? 元気ですか
      2. How can [could] you? ひどい!
      3. He didn't give me a hand with my trunk! How unkind can you get? なんて不親切なのかしら
        [問題になって要ることについての驚き・不審; なんということなの?]
      4. How come you didn't say anything? どうして何も言わないのか [なぜか]
      5. How dare you (say such a thing to me) ? よくもまあ
      6. How is it (that) you heard about that? そのことをどうやって聞いたの [どうしてそうなるの]
      7. Let me put this pillow under your head. There. How's that? これでどう?
      8. How's that for confidence? 大した自信だね。[この点の具合はどうか]
  2. Idea: 控えめに助言する場合
    1. It might be a good idea to give it a try. 試してみるのがいいかもしれません。
    2. It might not be a bad idea to talk to Jim. He's sure to know something about it.
      相談してみるのもいいんじゃないか。何か知っているはずだよ。
    3. ♣語法:
      1. idea: 心に浮かんだ考え; a thought or suggestion
        1. I've got good idea. いい考えがある。
        2. have no idea of time 時間の観念
      2. concept: あるものに対して一般化した考え; an abstract idea; a plan or intention
        1. moral concepts 道徳に関する考え
        2. the concept that all men are created equal. 人間皆平等という思想’
      3. thought: 理性的に考えて浮かぶ考え; an idea or opinion produced by thinking
        1. Arrrange your thought before you speak. 話す前に思考をよく整理する
        2. The thought crossed my mind that he miht not return the money. お金を返さないという思い
      4. notion: ≒idea 思いつきや漠然とした考え; a belief about something
        1. The notion that poverty is caused by laziness. 貧乏は怠慢からという思い込み
        2. He had a notion that she was very anagry with him. 彼女は怒っていると考えていた
    4. ♦熟語:
      1. I don't want you getting any ideas about me just because we're thrown together like this.
        一緒にこんな状況になったからと言って、私に勝手に期待しないで。
      2. She wouldn't have a job, she realized, if she didn't buck up her ideas. よし真剣に考えなかった。[英=]
      3. He's my brother. Don't get the wrong idea about us. 私の兄よ。勘違いしないで。
      4. She has the right idea of preparing early for her exam. 彼女の判断は正解だ
      5. Don't run away with the idea that this job is easy to handle. 簡単にやれると早合点するな
      6. The idea of keeping a lobster as a pet! 何んて変わっている!
      7. He went to Paris with the idea of becoming an artist. [that he would become ...]
 
  73
  1. actually
  2. advise
  3. afraid
  4. agree
  5. all right
  6. apologize
  7. appreciate
  8. ask
  9. believe
  10. better
  11. bother
  12. can
  13. could
  14. chance
  15. disagree
  16. favor
  17. forgive
  18. good
  19. grateful
  20. great
  21. guess
  22. had better
  23. happen
  24. hate
  25. have to
  26. help
  27. hope
  28. how
  29. idea
  30. if
  31. kind
  32. know
  33. let
  34. let's
  35. like
  36. love
  37. may
  38. might
  39. maybe
  40. mind
  41. must
  42. need
  43. nice
  44. ought
  45. perhaps
  46. please
  47. possible
  48. possibly
  49. rather
  50. recommend
  51. seem
  52. shall
  53. should
  54. sorry
  55. suggest
  56. suppose
  57. tell
  58. thank you
  59. think
  60. trouble
  61. very
  62. want
  63. what
  64. why
  65. will
  66. would
  67. wish
  68. wonder
  1. >Top If: 依頼・提案・申し出・許可などの緩和表現 (もし条件をつけて押し付けを弱め相手が断り易いように配慮)
    1. if 条件付き表現:
      1. Can you have a talk, if you have time? もしお時間あれば
      2. How about Friday, if that's okay with you? もしご都合よければ
      3. I can pick you up, if you want. もしよかったら
      4. May I have look, if you don't mind? もしよろしければ
      5. If it's not too much trouble, could you check the records? ご面倒でなければ
      6. How about dinner tonight, if you are free? もしお時間あれば
    2. 助言の場合も控えめな表現:
      1. Perhaps you can do better if you just relax. もしリラックスすれば
      2. I think Tom will help you if you ask him. もし彼に頼めば
    3. if .. will [would]... 間接的で定年な依頼表現:
      1. If you will just wait here, I'll call the manager. ここでお待ちいただければ
      2. If he will apologize to me, I'll forgive him. もし彼が謝るつもりならば
      3. I'd be most grateful if you would help me. もし助けていただければ
    4. 依頼・提案・発言する場合の間接的で丁寧な表現:
      1. If I may [could] make a suggestion, why don't we talk about it again next time? 一つ提案なのですが
      2. If you could sign here, please. こちらにサインいただければ
      3. It would be great if you could help us. 手伝ってもられるとありがたいのですが
      4. If you ask me, he won't be able to do the work alone. 言わせていただければ
    5. ♦熟語
      1. If only he’d write! 手紙を書いてくれさえすればいいのですが
      2. If this rumor be true, we may assume that he is safe. もしもこの噂が本当なら
      3. If... a cent [a day, an inch,...]
        1. It cost 30 dollars, if a cent. 確かに30ドルはした。
        2. She's 40 yeas old if a day. 40歳にはなっている。’
      4. if it had not been for... もしも...がなかったら
        1. If it hadn't been for you advice, I would have gone wrong. もしあなたの忠告がなかったならば
        2. If it were not for the sun, no creature could live. もし太陽がなかったとしたら
      5. if not ... もしそうでないなら; ひょっとすると
        1. Are there any empty seats? If not, we'll wait for the next train. もしなければ次の列車に
        2. It will be difficult, if not impossible, to cross this river. いや不可能かもしれない
        3. This happens hundred if not thousands of times a year. いや何千回も起こっている
        4. Her manner was, if not downright rude, (at least) unwelcoming. まったく無礼とはいえないまでも
      6. if so もしそうなら
        1. Are you free today? If so, I'll drop in. もしお暇なら
      7. only if... という条件の場合だけ
        1. I'll come only if you do.
        2. Only if the doctor has given permission, may you go out. [only ifが文頭にくると倒置]
      8. what if...? もし...だったらどうしよう
        1. What if hey should come late. 万一、彼らが遅れてきたらどうしようか
        2. What if we put off the game? 試合を延期したらどうだろう
        3. What if I fail? 失敗してもかまうものか
  2. Kind: 親切を受けたり褒められたときの相手に感謝する表現:
    かなり格式ばった表現で慇懃無礼な響きもでてくる。
    1. Ann, I've brought some flowers for the party tonight. - Thank you, Ted. That's so kind of you. 本当に優しいのね
    2. It's very kind of you to help. -Oh, it's nothing. 本当にありがとう
    3. Mrs Smith, you're as beautiful as ever. -Oh, it's kind of you to say so. そう言ってもらえてうれしい
    4. ♦熟語:
      1. Would you be kind enough to do? =Would you be so kind as to do?
        1. Would you be kind enough to make two photocopies of this for me? コピーとっていただけますか。
  3. Know: Do you know what [how, why,...]? といった関節疑問文は控えめで柔らかい表現。
    1. Excuse me. Do you know where Park Street is? どこにあるかご存知ですか
    2. Do you happen to know why he didn't come? もしかしてご存知でしたら
    3. ♦熟語:
      1. He's not involved it it as far as I know. 私の知る限り
      2. Kyoto as we know it. 我々の知っている京都
      3. As you know, accidents like this happened many times before. ご存知の通り
      4. Don't worry! It'll be over before you know it. あっという間に
      5. He may never come back for all I know. もう帰ってこないということかもね。
      6. God knows where he has gone! 行方は誰もわからない。
      7. I don't know, at six, at seven. 6時か7時かよくわからない。
      8. If I know her [Knowing her] I don't think she would say such a thing. 私のしている彼女なら
      9. I know what - let's both go. いい考えがある
      10. I might have known that she would say so. そうだとわかっていた。
      11. You should have known better. もっと分別があるべきなのに
      12. Do you know of any good dictionary for beginners? ごぞんじですか
 
  74
  1. actually
  2. advise
  3. afraid
  4. agree
  5. all right
  6. apologize
  7. appreciate
  8. ask
  9. believe
  10. better
  11. bother
  12. can
  13. could
  14. chance
  15. disagree
  16. favor
  17. forgive
  18. good
  19. grateful
  20. great
  21. guess
  22. had better
  23. happen
  24. hate
  25. have to
  26. help
  27. hope
  28. how
  29. idea
  30. if
  31. kind
  32. know
  33. let
  34. let's
  35. like
  36. love
  37. may
  38. might
  39. maybe
  40. mind
  41. must
  42. need
  43. nice
  44. ought
  45. perhaps
  46. please
  47. possible
  48. possibly
  49. rather
  50. recommend
  1. Let: Let me do. は許可を求めるときの直接的表現; 相手に迷惑のかからない事柄や親しい場合
    1. Let me have a sip. - Well, just a little bit. ちょっと飲ませて
    2. Let me ask you a question. 一つ質問させて下さい
    3. Let me help you. -Oh, thank you [Can I help you よりも積極的な申し出]
  2. Let's: 積極的な誘い・提案の表現。相手が応じる可能性が高い場合 (過去の経験など)に使われる
    1. It's already 9. Let's call it a day, shall we? -Yes sure. We can do the rest tomorrow.
    2. 相手を誘うときの表現: 行かの順で直接的な誘い〜間接的な(控えめな)言い方となる
      1. Let's ...
      2. How about ...ing?
      3. Why don't we ...?
      4. Shall we ...? / Do you want to ...?
      5. Would you like to ...?
      6. I was wondering if you'd like to ....
  3. Like:
    1. I (really) like ...: 相手の持ち物・外見・成果などをほめる場合。
      1. Oh, I really like your shoes. -Thanks. I just bought them last week. あ、その靴いいですね。
      2. I liked your presentation. You did a great job. 発表、すばらしかったです。
      3. Is that your father's car? It's cool. - Yeah, I like it too. It's great. 私も気に入っている [返答にも使う]
    2. would like to ... : ...したいと思う
      1. I'd like to go to the football game.
      2. Where would you like to sit? - In front.
      3. I'd like to have seen her face when she opened the letter. [実現されなかった場合の希望]
      4. I'd like to do, but... ["本当は...したいけど"を前置きして断ると丁寧]
        1. We're planning to go camping this weekend. How about going with us?
          Oh, I'd really like to go, but I've got to work this week end. 本当は生きたいんだけど...
      5. Would you like to do? は丁寧に相手の意向を尋ねる表現
        1. Would you like to see that movie? - Oh yes, I'm dying to see it! うん、すごく見たい。
        2. Would you like to have seat? おかけになりますか
        3. Would you like to join us? It'll be fun! 一緒にどうですか。楽しいですよ。
      6. I would like you to do. 相手が断らないようなことを依頼 (相手に義務感があることを依頼)
        1. Luke, I'd like you to mow the grass today. - Okay, Dad. 今日芝刈りして欲しいだけど
        2. I'd like you to know how much I appreciate taht. (相手にとって負担のない行為は強制感がない)
      7. Would you like me to do? 助力を申し出て相手の意向を問う表現 (控えめな印象)
        1. Would you like me to carry that bag? -Oh, thank you. Yes, please. カバンをお持ちしましょうか
      8. I would like ... 希望を述べて依頼する表現 (注文など確実な場合)
        1. I'd like ten of these. -Certainly, Just a moment, sir. これ10個欲しいのですが
        2. I'd like a nonsmoking table. -Certainly. This way, please. 禁煙席をお願いします。
  4. Love: 相手の持ち物・外見・成果を褒める場合。
    1. likeより積極的・強調してほめる表現。男性はlikeの方が一般的。
      1. I love your skirt. -Thank you. I got it on sale. そのスカートかわいいね
      2. I love what you've done with your hair. -Oh, thanks. I wanted to try something different. 髪型すてきですね。
      3. I love your work. あなたの作品はすばらしい
    2. would love ...; ...したいと思う、欲しいと思う
      1. She would love some help. 助けを欲しがっている
      2. I'd love to visit Paris. ぜひパリを訪れたい
    3. I'd love to do, but... は、["本当は...したいけど"を前置き表現で相手の気持ちを配慮して断る場合]
      1. How about going to the movies tonight?
        - I'd love to, but I have to finish my paper tonight.
 
  75
  1. actually
  2. advise
  3. afraid
  4. agree
  5. all right
  6. apologize
  7. appreciate
  8. ask
  9. believe
  10. better
  11. bother
  12. can
  13. could
  14. chance
  15. disagree
  16. favor
  17. forgive
  18. good
  19. grateful
  20. great
  21. guess
  22. had better
  23. happen
  24. hate
  25. have to
  26. help
  27. hope
  28. how
  29. idea
  30. if
  31. kind
  32. know
  33. let
  34. let's
  35. like
  36. love
  37. may
  38. might
  39. maybe
  40. mind
  41. must
  42. need
  43. nice
  44. ought
  45. perhaps
  46. please
  47. possible
  48. possibly
  49. rather
  50. recommend
  51. seem
  52. shall
  53. should
  54. sorry
  55. suggest
  56. suppose
  57. tell
  58. thank you
  59. think
  60. trouble
  61. very
  62. want
  63. what
  64. why
  65. will
  66. would
  67. wish
  68. wonder
  1. May: mayには[権威者による許可]というイメージがあるので、一般的にはcanを使うことが多い。
    1. Can I ...?は客観的な可能性の価値判断。May I ...?相手の主観な許可を価値判断。英語圏の小学校ではMay I...?を使うように教育することもある。
      1. Ms. Jones, can I go to the bathroom? 僕トイレに行けますか(行ってもいいですか)
        -I don't know. Can you? 私はわかりません。あなたは行けるんですか (mayの使用を指導)
    2. May I ...? [相手の許可を求める丁寧で改まった表現] (軽い事柄についてが多い)
      1. May I have a seat? -Go right ahead. 座ってもよろしいですか
      2. May I call you Alice? アリスさんとお呼びしてもいいですか
    3. May I ...? [店員など改まった場面での丁寧な申し出]
      1. May I show you to your seat, ma'am? -Yes, please. Thank you.
      2. Sir [Ma'am], may I offer another cup of tea? - No, thanks.
    4. May I...?の返事:
      1. Yes, you can./ No, you can'tと答えるか、Of course/ I'm afraid you can't と答える。
      2. Yes, you may./ No, you may not. の返答は、相手が目下で自分に許可の権限がある場合 (尊大な印象)
        1. May I go home now, Mr. Smith? -Yes, you may. もう帰宅してもいいですか。ええいいです。
    5. may not ...してはならない [否定文は、規則などの禁止]
      1. Visitors may not feed the animals. 動物にエサを与えないで下さい。
      2. Nothing may be contained in or attached to this letter. 何も入れたり貼ったりはできません。
  2. Might:
    1. It might be a good idea 控えめな助言をする場合
      1. It might be a good idea to give it a try. 試してみるのもいいかも知れません
      2. It might not be a bad idea to talk to Jim. ジムに相談してみるのもいいんじゃないかな
        He's sure to know something about it.
  3. Maybe: could, can, should などを用いて依頼・提案・申し出の間接的・控えめな緩和表現。
    1. Maybe you could turn down that TV? -Oh, sorry. I didn't realize anyone else was here. 音を小さくして下さい
    2. Maybe we should have another meeting. もう一度会議を開いた方がいいかもしれません。
  4. >Top Mind: 相手の意向を気にかけている控えめな表現。仮定法wouldと使うとより婉曲でやわらかい表現
    1. Sir, would you mind filling in this form, please -Sure.
    2. Do you mind my [me] asking about your family?
    3. 承諾の返事はNo.で答えるのが文法的だが、Certainly, Sure, Of course, All rightなどの返事も多い
      断りの返事は、Yes, I do.は直接過ぎて失礼な印象。I'm sorry, but.. やWell, I'm afraid ...との返事が多い
    4. Would [Do] you mind if I ...? 許可を求めるときの疑問文。[相手が断る可能性が比較的低い場合]
      1. Do you mind if I borrow this? -No, go ahead.
      2. Mind if I sit here? -Not at all.
    5. ♦熟語:
      1. Don't mind me! 私のことはほっといて
      2. I don't mind. [飲み物などの勧めに対し]どちらでも、何でもいい
        1. Go ahead. you might like it. -I don't mind if I do. [より丁寧な返答] お口に合いますか。遠慮なくいただき
      3. if you don't [wouldn't] mind. [丁寧な依頼や許可]
        1. I'll take this, if you don't mind. 差し支えなかったらこれをいただきます。
      4. if you don't mind me [my] saying so. こう言っては失礼ですが
      5. Mind (you), this is just between you and me. いいですね。ここだけの話だよ
      6. Never mind 気にするな [✕Don't mind]
        1. Never mind her. 彼女のことなんかどうでもいいじゃないか
      7. Would you mind calling him to the phone?
        - No, not at all. 彼を電話口に.. いいですよ。-I'm sorry I can't, because... すみません、今応じられません
        1. Do you mind my [me] doing? くだけた言い方。すでにやり始めたことに対する同意 [の含意]
        2. Would you mind my [me] doing? これからしようとすることへの許可[の含意]
  5. Must:
    1. You must do. 直接的で強制度の高い命令の意味。権限のある人が命じる場合が多い
      1. Paul, before you leave the table, you must eat all your vegetables. 野菜を全部食べなさい。
        -I've already had enough. もう十分食べたよ。
      2. Well, I'd better get going. -Really? Why don't you stay for supper? そろそろお暇を。夕飯食べてからにしたら
        -Thanks, I'd like to, but I really must go. [話し手の主観的な義務を表す場合] 本当にもう行かなくちゃ
      3. You must come to class every day. [休みがちな生徒に対する忠告]
      4. You mustn't do that. そんなことをしてはいけません。[mustの否定は禁止]
        1. Cf: You don't have to leave till six. 6時まで出発する必要はない。[have toの否定は不要]
      5. [相手にとって望ましいことを積極的に誘う場合。相手が断らないことを予想して言う]
        1. Thank you for coming. You must come visit us next time.
    2. ♦熟語
      1. May I smoke here? - If you must. どうしても吸いたければね。
      2. Her work is outstanding, I must say. 確かに抜群だといわざるを得ない
      3. It must be remembered that ... ...は注目に値する
      4. Must you wear that T-shirt all the time. いつも着てなきゃだめなの [Must you do...? どうしても]
 
  76
  1. actually
  2. advise
  3. afraid
  4. agree
  5. all right
  6. apologize
  7. appreciate
  8. ask
  9. believe
  10. better
  11. bother
  12. can
  13. could
  14. chance
  15. disagree
  16. favor
  17. forgive
  18. good
  19. grateful
  20. great
  21. guess
  22. had better
  23. happen
  24. hate
  25. have to
  26. help
  27. hope
  28. how
  29. idea
  30. if
  31. kind
  32. know
  33. let
  34. let's
  35. like
  36. love
  37. may
  38. might
  39. maybe
  40. mind
  41. must
  42. need
  43. nice
  44. ought
  45. perhaps
  46. please
  47. possible
  48. possibly
  49. rather
  50. recommend
  51. seem
  52. shall
  53. should
  54. sorry
  55. suggest
  56. suppose
  57. tell
  58. thank you
  59. think
  60. trouble
  61. very
  62. want
  63. what
  64. why
  65. will
  66. would
  67. wish
  68. wonder
  1. Need:
    1. You need to do. 直接的で強制度の高い命令・忠告、状況・規則に基づく必要性の強調
      1. I think you need to see a specialist. 専門家に相談した方がいい
      2. Girls, it's midnight. You need to go to sleep! もう0時だから、寝なさい
      3. To begin with, you need to understand the terminology. まず初めに専門用語を理解する必要がある [一般論]
    2. I need you to do. 相手が断る余地がないような依頼・指示する場合
      1. I need you to come here immediately. -Certainly, sir. すぐこちらへ来て。かしこまりました。
      2. I need you to fill out this form, please. こちらの用紙にご記入下さい
      3. Ma'am, I need you to calm down. お客様、落ち着いて下さい
    3. ♦熟語:
      1. I don't need his complaints. 彼のぐちはききたくもない
      2. What I need is a curtain that matches the color. 今必要なのは
      3. The house is in need of renovation. 早急に修復する必要がある
  2. Nice: 単独では"まあまあ"のニュアンスになり得るので、really, very, soなど強調表現をつける
    1. That shirt is so nice. -than you. I bought it in Italy. そのシャツ素敵ですね。
    2. Tom is a really nice person. Everybody likes him. トムはすごくいい人
    3. That was a nice speech. I was really impressed.
      1. niceの代わりに、wonderful, excellent, great, fantastic, incredible, amazing, perfect, brilliantで強調
      2. The film was just incredible.
    4. It's nice of you to call! 電話くれてありがとう [niceを使った感謝]
      1. Your English is very good. -Thank you. It's nice of you to say that.
  3. Ought:
    1. You ought to do. 直接的な助言・提案 [相手が受け入れる可能性が高い場合] You should doとほぼ同じ
      1. I've got a fever and a terrible stomachache. 熱があって胃が痛い。
        - Then you ought to see a doctor at once. それならすぐ医者に診てもらった方がいい
    2. 断定口調を和らげるために maybe, perhaps, I think, I believe, I guessなどの緩和表現をつける
      1. I think you ought to give it a try. 試したほうがいいと思うのですが
  4. Perhaps: 確率は50%以下。
    1. probably, maybeより確率低い。誘い・依頼に使うとその気がないと思われる。
      1. Are you coming go the party tomorrow?
        - Perhaps I'll come. 気が向いたら行くかも。
    2. could, can, shouldを用いた依頼・提案・申し出の文を控えめにする緩和表現、遠慮がちな姿勢
      1. How can I improve my presentation skills?
        - Perhaps you should practice in front of your friends and get their feedback. ...してもらったらいいと思う
      2. Perhaps you could help me out? ちょっと手伝っていただけますか
  5. Please: 依頼・指示の疑問文、許可を求める疑問文に用い、口調を柔らかくする。 (相手が断る可能性が低い場合)
    1. Excuse me. Could you please tell the way to the station? すみません。駅に行く道を教えていただけますか
      - Certainly. Go along this street and turn right at the second corner. You'll find it on your left.
    2. Would you like another cup of coffee? [疑問文の申し出・誘いなどの返答]
      1. 承諾する時: Yes, please. (=Yes, thank you)
      2. 断る時: No, thank you.
    3. ♦熟語
      1. If you please, Miss Smith, I'd like a word with you. 恐れ入りますが、ちょっとお話があります。
  6. Possible:
    1. Would it be possible for you to do? [負担の大きいことの依頼や親しくない人へのお願い]
      1. I need to go to L.A. this weekend. Would it be possible for you to lend me your car?
        - Again? Why don't you rent a car. またかい。レンターカー借りたら
    2. 起こりうる確率: possible 論理的に可能性はある < likely ある程度の可能性 < probable 統計上かなりありそう
    3. if possible: もし可能ならという緩和条件をつけることで相手に断りやすい配慮
      1. When should I come to discuss it with you? If possible, I'd like to do so today. Could you drop by about 3 o'clock. できれば今日がいいのですが、3時頃来ていただけますか
  7. Possibly: shouldやcanを使った依頼・許可を求める疑問視にpossiblyを挿入すると、"ひょっとしてできませんか"の意味を加えることで、遠慮がちな表現に緩和される。
    1. Could you possibly spare me a few minutes before the meeting? - Sure. No problem.
      会議の前にできれば数分お時間をいただくことはできませんか。- いいですよ
    2. 肯定文でcanと共に: できる限り、何とかして
      1. I'll come as soon as I possibly can. できるだけ早く参ります。
    3. 否定文でcanと共に: どうしても無理です。
      1. I cannot [couldn't] possibly come tomorrow. 明日はどうしても来られません
  8. Rather: I would rather do [not do]; どちらかと言えば...したい (したくいない);好ましくないことに対して言う
    1. What happened yesterday. - I'm sorry, but I'd rather not say. すみません。話すのを控えたいです。
    2. How about going for a drive? - I'd rather no. Actually, I'm a bit tired. やめとくよ。ちょっと疲れているし
    3. [仮定法過去]
      1. Would you mind if I smoked here? ここでタバコを吸ってもいいですか
        - I'd rather you didn't できればご遠慮いただきたいのですsが
      2. I'd rather you went. できればあなたに行ってもらいたい
      3. I would rather not go there. そこへは行きたくない
      4. I would rather not have gone there. そこへ行かない方がよかった
    4. ♦熟語
      1. late last night, or rather early this morning. というよりむしろ
      2. Rather than waste [wasting] your time doing it yourself, why don't you call in a builder?
        自作して時間を無駄にするより建設業者を呼んだら
      3. I'm going climbing tomorrow -Rather you than me. 明日登山するけど。私はごめんだ。
 
  77
  1. actually
  2. advise
  3. afraid
  4. agree
  5. all right
  6. apologize
  7. appreciate
  8. ask
  9. believe
  10. better
  11. bother
  12. can
  13. could
  14. chance
  15. disagree
  16. favor
  17. forgive
  18. good
  19. grateful
  20. great
  21. guess
  22. had better
  23. happen
  24. hate
  25. have to
  26. help
  27. hope
  28. how
  29. idea
  30. if
  31. kind
  32. know
  33. let
  34. let's
  35. like
  36. love
  37. may
  38. might
  39. maybe
  40. mind
  41. must
  42. need
  43. nice
  44. ought
  45. perhaps
  46. please
  47. possible
  48. possibly
  49. rather
  50. recommend
  51. seem
  52. shall
  53. should
  54. sorry
  55. suggest
  56. suppose
  57. tell
  58. thank you
  59. think
  60. trouble
  61. very
  62. want
  63. what
  64. why
  65. will
  66. would
  67. wish
  68. wonder
  1. >Top Recommend:
    1. I recommend that you.. 直接的でやや改まった助言の表現。専門家などが知識・経験に基づいて確信をもって助言する場合が多い
      1. I'd recommend that you read this article so you can gent an overview.
      2. I recommend using organic apples.
      3. It is recommended that you exercise daily. [人を主語にしない間接的表現]
  2. Seem: 言いにくいことの述べる際にseemを使うと、断定を避けた遠回しの言い方になり、相手の面子に配慮
    1. It doesn't seem to make sense.
    2. Are there any other opinions? - I tend to agree, but if would seem too early to make a final decision.
    3. You don't seem to understand.
    4. They don't seem to agree with you.
    5. ♦熟語
      1. He seemed like an honest man. 正直な男のようだった。
      2. There seems (to be) no error on his side. 彼の側に誤りはないようだ。
      3. 類義語
        1. seem 話し手の主観的判断; That seems best to me.
        2. appear 外観はそう見えるが実際はそうではないという含意; Hew appears to be satisfied.
        3. look 外観から判断して実際もそうであろうという含意; She looks angry.
  3. Shall:
    1. Shall I ...?; やや控えめに助力を申し出る際の表現
      1. You look tired. Shall I drive for a while? - No, I'm fine, thanks. 運転替わろうか。いや大丈夫
      2. Shall I call a cab for you? タクシーをお呼びしましょうか。
    2. 申し出の表現は、行かの順で、直接的〜間接的表現
      なお、相手が申し出を望んでいる場合はむしろ直接的表現を使う。間接度の高い表現は、社交辞令と捉えることもある。
      逆に相手が申し出を望んでいるかどうか確信できない場合は、相手が断りやすいように間接的表現にする。
      1. I'll ..., Let me ...
      2. Can [Could] I ... for you?
      3. Shall [Should] O / May I ...? (格式)
      4. Do you want me to ...?
      5. Would you like me to ...?, If you like, I could ...
    3. Shall we ...?; Let's...の提案に対する返事:
      1. 応じるとき: Yes, let's.よりも、Sure; That sounds good; I'd love to
      2. 断るとき: No, let's not. と言わず、Sorry, but ...; That's a good idea, but...; I'd like to, but ...など一旦同意の気持ちを述べてかあ反対することが多い。
  4. Should:
    1. You [We] should ...直接的な提案表現。相手が受け入れる可能性が高い場合に使うことが多い。
      1. Do you think this book is worth reading? - Yes, it's a very helpful book. You should read it. 読んだ方がいい
      2. You should be looking at the audience, not at your notes. メモではなく聴衆の方を見るべき
    2. 断定口調を緩和するために maybe, perhaps, probably, I think, I believe, I guessなどを文頭に。
      1. I don't know if he is coming. -Well, maybe you should call him and ask. 電話したらどうかな
      2. The movie start at 7. - OK. Then probably we should plan to get there around 6:30. 付くほうがいいかも
      3. 助言の場合の直接的表現〜間接的表現の順
        なお、相手が受け入れる可能性大、緊急度が高い場合はより直接的表現、逆に、相手が受け入れる可能性小の場合は間接的な控えめな表現がよい。
        1. You should [ought to] ...
        2. How about doing? Why don't you ...?
        3. (If I were you,) I would ...
        4. You could ..., It might be better to ...
        5. You might want to ..., It might be an idea to ...
        6. Hay you thought of doing ... [示唆的な表現]
    3. should+過去分詞は、過去の怠慢・落ち度の非難・後悔に使われる
      1. You should have (at least) called to tell me if you'd canceled it. 電話してくれればよかったのに
        - I'm terribly sorry. But I really didn't have time to call you. ごめん。電話する時間がなかった。
      2. My apologies. I should've been more careful. ごめん。もっと気をつけるべきでした。
    4. 高価な贈り物に対する恐縮したお礼表現
      1. Happy Birthday! Here's something for you! これプレゼント!
        -Oh! What a beautiful necklace! It look expensive. You really shouldn't have. わざわざよかったのに
    5. 相手にとって望ましいこと楽しいことを積極的に勧誘した、相手が断らない予測ができる場合の強調表現
      1. You should try this cake. It's really delicious!
      2. Oh, Meg and I are going to the mall tomorrow. You should join us if you're not doing anything.
        もし暇だったらショッピングモールへ一緒に行こうよ
    6. ♣語法
      1. that節の中は、should+原形か単に原形か、あるいは直説法か
        1. 米: 原形: [まだ心の中の想定なので]
          They insisted that he stay in school another year.
          The doctor insisted that he not have coffee.
        2. 英: should+原形、また直説法の場合もある
          They insisted that he should stay in school another year.
          They insisted that he stayed in school another year.
          The doctor insisted that he should not have coffee.
          The doctor insisted that he didn't have coffee.
 
  78
  1. sorry
  2. suggest
  3. suppose
  4. tell
  5. thank you
  6. think
  7. trouble
  8. very
  9. want
  10. what
  11. why
  12. will
  13. would
  14. wish
  15. wonder
  1. Sorry: 依頼をするときに前置きで使うと"迷惑をかけて悪い"という気持ちが伝わり丁寧な依頼文となる
    1. I'm sorry to bother you but could you take a picture of us? -Sure. お手数ですが...
    2. Would you like to come to the party on Saturday? -Oh, I'm sorry, but I have to work that day. [断るとき]
    3. Excuse me, could you tell me how to get to this address? -I'm sorry, I'm a stranger here myself.
    4. Excuse me. Do you have this skirt in a different color?
      -Let me go check - I'm terribly sorry, but it seems we only have that one color in stock right now.
  2. Suggest: 選択肢として助言・提案するという含みがある。recommendより確信の度合いが低い。但し、I think you should に比べるとやや改まった表現
    1. If you're worried, I'd suggest you seek a second opinion. 心配ならセカンドオピニオン聞いたらいいと思うよ
    2. May I suggest we discuss this another time? 別の奇怪に話し合うことにしませんか
    3. If you need more information, I suggest visiting their website.
    4. I suggest that you follow her advice.
  3. Suppose: 主張の強さを和らげる表現。I guess同様確信がない場合。やや改まった響きで主に英で使われる
    1. I suppose we need to get permission. 許可を得る必要があると思います。
    2. I don't suppose it matters any more. もはやそれは問題ではないと思います。
    3. [確信のなさを同意を示す同意文では、むしろ積極的に同意していないという否定的なニュアンスとなる]
      1. I suppose you're right.
    4. I don't suppose [否定形は、規則に基づく禁止を表す]
      1. You are not supposed to smoke in this building.
    5. Suppose ... [仮に... としよう。...するのはどうだろう]
      1. Suppose you walk three miles an hour. How far can you go in five hours? 時速3mileで歩くとすると
      2. Suppose she refused to help you. What would you do then? もしいやだと言ったらどうしますか
      3. Suppose (=If) it snows, what will you do? 雪になったらどうしますか
      4. Suppose we meet at seven. 7時に会うことにしたらどうですか [控えめな提案]
    6. ♦熟語:
      1. What that supposed to mean? 一体それはどういうことだ [困惑して怒っている]
      2. You don't suppose ...? ...でしょうね [念を押す言い方]
        1. You don't suppose she'll miss the train, do you? まさか乗り遅れたりしないでしょうね。
 
  79
  1. actually
  2. advise
  3. afraid
  4. agree
  5. all right
  6. apologize
  7. appreciate
  8. ask
  9. believe
  10. better
  11. bother
  12. can
  13. could
  14. chance
  15. disagree
  16. favor
  17. forgive
  18. good
  19. grateful
  20. great
  21. guess
  22. had better
  23. happen
  24. hate
  25. have to
  26. help
  27. hope
  28. how
  29. idea
  30. if
  31. kind
  32. know
  33. let
  34. let's
  35. like
  36. love
  37. may
  38. might
  39. maybe
  40. mind
  41. must
  42. need
  43. nice
  44. ought
  45. perhaps
  46. please
  47. possible
  48. possibly
  49. rather
  50. recommend
  51. seem
  52. shall
  53. should
  54. sorry
  55. suggest
  56. suppose
  57. tell
  58. thank you
  59. think
  60. trouble
  61. very
  62. want
  63. what
  64. why
  65. will
  66. would
  67. wish
  68. wonder
  1. Tell: 間接疑問文を使うと通所のwh疑問文より控えめで和らいた表現になる
    1. Could [Can] you tell me what [how, why,..]...?
      1. Excuse me. Can you tell me where I am on this map? この地図上で現在地はどこになりますか
      2. Could you tell me why you feel that way? どうしてそのように思うのか教えてください
      3. [tellは askやrequireより相手にメッセージを手渡すイメージで直接働きかける動詞 >teller]
        1. The mother told her son not to play with the boy. [間接話法]
          (= The mother said to her son, "Don't play with the boy.") [直接話法]
    2. ♣語法
      1. all told: 合計で
        1. We are fifteen all told. [=in all] 全部で
      2. tell of: を物語る、示す
        1. His worn look tells of his suffering. 彼のやつれた表情は苦労を物語っている
      3. tell off: きつくしかる
        1. He told some students off for chatting. 私語をきつく叱った
        2. Her boss told Betty off for being late. を叱りつける
      4. tell on: (子供などが)告げ口する
        1. I'm telling (on) Mom. ままにいいつけてやる (=I'm telling on you) [子供のけんかなどで]
        2. He skipped the class and Mary told on him. メアリーはそのことを告げ口した
      5. tell where to go (提案に対して)興味がないことをいう
        1. I asked Annie out, but she told me where to go. デートに誘ったが取り付く島もなかった
      6. teller: 出納係; a fortune-teller 占い師
      7. tell-all: 暴露本
      8. tell-tale: 暴露する
    3. ♦熟語:
      1. Can [Could] anyone tell me about his qualification? 誰か知りませんか
      2. Didn't I tell you? あれ、言いませんでしたっけ
      3. Do as [what] you are told. 言われた通りにしなさい
      4. Do tell. まさか; 本当に [相手の発言への猜疑心]
      5. Do you mean to tell me that she's actually a "he"? つまり彼女は本当は男だって言うのか
      6. Don't make me tell you again. また同じことを言わせるんじゃありません [子供などに]
      7. Don't tell me. (もうそれ以上は)言わなくていい
        1. Don't tell me you left the key in the car! まさか...じゃないでしょうね
      8. He has told me all about you. あなたのことは彼からよく聞いています。 [紹介されたときに]
      9. It won't be easy, I can tell you. 簡単ではないよ、本当に
      10. I can't tell you. 何と言ったらいいのか; (秘密なのでそれ以上は) 言えない
        1. I can't tell you more than that at the moment. それ以上のことは言えません [回答の保留]
      11. I couldn't tell you. 私にはわかりかねますが
      12. I don't know how to tell you this, but she's passed. どう言ったらいいか... 彼女は亡くなりました
      13. I must tell you, he's no hero. 言っておくが、彼は英雄なんかじゃない
      14. I told you (so)! だから言ったでしょう。それみてごらん
      15. If I've told you once, I've told you a thousand times. Don't play with matches. 何回言ったらわかるの
      16. I'll tell you what: break up with Alex. 何が言いたいかというと... [くだけた提案の前置き]
      17. I'm not telling you. それ以上は答えたくない
      18. I'm telling you, he's a real doll. 彼って本当にかわいいのよ
      19. Let me tell you straight. Your drawing's no good. はっきり言いますね。あれはまるで駄目です
      20. So I've been [I'm] told. 私もそう聞いている
      21. Somebody told me that you used to live in Rome. ローマに住んでたことがあるんだってね
      22. I've no choice but to tell it like it is. ありのまま話すしかありません
      23. Tell me, is he married? ちょっと教えて、彼結婚してるの? [質問の前置き]
      24. Tell me about it. わかるわかる (=You don't have to tell me about it.)[相手の共感の相づち]
      25. Tell me another (one) 本当かよ、嘘つけ[冗談への相づち]
      26. Tell me more (about) もっと聞かせて
      27. I'll tell you something [one thing]. (=Let me tell you something)
        ちょっといいかな [意見を言うときの前置き]
        1. Before you ask, I'll tell you something, I haven't lost my mind. 予め言っておくけど
      28. That would be telling. それは(言いふらすことになるので)言えません
      29. There's no telling what she'll think about the plan. まるで見当がつかない
      30. (There's) no way to tell. だれにもわからないよ [今その答えをしる方法がないので]
      31. This is the guy I was telling you about. これが前から君に話していた奴だ。[くだけた紹介]
      32. What can I tell you? じゃなんて言えばいいんですか [非難された時の反論]
      33. Do you think he'll come? -You can never tell. なんとも言えないね [ひょっとしたらの含みもある]
      34. You didn't tell me your dad was a pilot. 聞いてないよ [初耳の時の繰り言]
      35. You just won't be told! 言うことを聞かない人だね
      36. You're telling me! そんなことは百も承知だ; よく言った、全くだね
 
  80
  1. actually
  2. advise
  3. afraid
  4. agree
  5. all right
  6. apologize
  7. appreciate
  8. ask
  9. believe
  10. better
  11. bother
  12. can
  13. could
  14. chance
  15. disagree
  16. favor
  17. forgive
  18. good
  19. grateful
  20. great
  21. guess
  22. had better
  23. happen
  24. hate
  25. have to
  26. help
  27. hope
  28. how
  29. idea
  30. if
  31. kind
  32. know
  33. let
  34. let's
  35. like
  36. love
  37. may
  38. might
  39. maybe
  40. mind
  41. must
  42. need
  43. nice
  44. ought
  45. perhaps
  46. please
  47. possible
  48. possibly
  49. rather
  50. recommend
  51. seem
  52. shall
  53. should
  54. sorry
  55. suggest
  56. suppose
  57. tell
  58. thank you
  59. think
  1. Thank you: 一般的な感謝の言葉
    1. Thank you/ Thanksの前後に相手への賛辞や受けた親切・贈り物・約束・恩義を付け加えるとより心が籠もった感謝
      1. How much do you need? Is 300 dollars enough?
        - Oh, I really appreciate your help! Thank you very much.
      2. Thank you for your help. Let me buy you lunch sometime.
        - That's not necessary. But let's do have lunch together sometime.
    2. 断るときもthank youを使って相手の気持ちに配慮した感謝を表すと丁寧な断りになる。また本当は行きたい、次は行きたいという意思も伝えることが多い
      1. We're having a party this Sunday. Would you like to come?
        - Thank you for the invitation, but I'm going to a baseball game on Sunday. Maybe next time.
      2. No, thank you. No, thanksは飲食物や援助の申し出を断るときの一般表現。
        1. Let me carry your baggage, ma'am. - No, thank you. I can manage.
        2. I'll do it myself, thank you.
        3. Thank you, but I'm fine.
        4. [何度もしつこく勧誘されたときは] I said no thank you. / I said I'm fine.できっぱり言う
  2. Think: 意見・意志を述べるときの主張を和らげる緩和表現
    1. I'm sorry, but I think you're mistaken.
    2. I think we should take it more seriously.
    3. I don't think you should do that.
    4. Anything for the dessert, sir? - Yes, I think I'll take some ice cream.
    5. I would think we should accept their proposal.
      [would, should でより緩和表現}
    6. I thought it would be better to wait for a while. 少し待った方がいいかと思ったのですが
      [過去形にすることで、過去にそう思ったが、今はそうとは限らないを含意した緩和表現]
      1. I was thinking we could go for a drive. ドライブへ行くのはどうかなと思っていたんだけど
        [過去進行形でより遠慮がちな表現]
      2. I thought maybe you could give me some tips. なにかアドバイスをもらえたらと思ったんだけど
        [過去形+maybeでより遠慮がちな表現]
    7. Do you think you [I] could ...? 依頼・許可を求める際の間接的表現。特に相手が応じるか予測がつかないか、相手が親しくない場合が多い。
      1. Dad, do you think you could lend me some money? I'll pay you back next week.
      2. Do you think I could take a few days off next week?
    8. ♣語法
    9. think much of ... は普通は否定文で用いる
      1. I don't think much of him. 彼は偉いとは思っていない
      2. Creativity is not thought much of in this country. 創造性が重んじられていない
    10. ♦熟語:
      1. I thought as much. そんなことだと思っていた [予想通りの悪い結果]
      2. I would think so. 多分そう思う。 / I would think not. そうは思いません。
      3. That's what you think. それはあくまであなたの考えです。
      4. think again 再考する、考えを変える
      5. think the better of ... 人を高く評価する
      6. think a lot of .. を重んじる
      7. think aloud 考え事をそんまま口に出す
      8. think better of .. よく考えてやめる
        1. I was going to ask him for help, but I thought better of it. 思い直してやめた
      9. think for oneself 自分で考える
      10. think ill of のことを悪く思う
      11. think less of の評価を下げる
      12. think little of .. を軽視する
      13. think mush of ...を尊重する
      14. Think nothing of it. 気にしないでください [相手のお詫び・お礼への対応]
      15. think the best of .. 人の良い所だけをみる
      16. think well of .. ...のことをよく知っている
      17. To think that ...! ..だと思うと悲しい・情けない
      18. What do you think? あのね、知っている? [意外なことを言う時の前置き]
      19. Who would have thought that ...? ...なんて誰が考えてただろう [意外なことへの驚き]
      20. You would think [have thought] that ...? ... だと思う[思った]でしょうが、実はそうではないのです。
 
  81
  1. great
  2. guess
  3. had better
  4. happen
  5. hate
  6. have to
  7. help
  8. hope
  9. how
  10. idea
  11. if
  12. kind
  13. know
  14. let
  15. let's
  16. like
  17. love
  18. may
  19. might
  20. maybe
  21. mind
  22. must
  23. need
  24. nice
  25. ought
  26. perhaps
  27. please
  28. possible
  29. possibly
  30. rather
  31. recommend
  32. seem
  33. shall
  34. should
  35. sorry
  36. suggest
  37. suppose
  38. tell
  39. thank you
  40. think
  41. trouble
  42. very
  43. want
  44. what
  45. why
  46. will
  47. would
  48. wish
  49. wonder
  1. >Top Trouble: 相手に迷惑をかけたことを謝罪するときにtoubleを使う
    1. I'm sorry to trouble you at work. お仕事中おじゃまして[お電話して]すみません
    2. Thank you . I'm sorry to trouble you. - No problem.
    3. [依頼の前置きとして、、依頼によって相手面倒をかけてしまうことを申し訳なく思う表現]
      1. I'm sorry trouble you, but could you give me a hand?
        - Sure of course. お手数かけて悪いんだけれど、手伝ってもらえるかな。
      2. Sir, may I trouble you for a moment? - Yest? あの、ちょっとよろしいでしょうか
    4. [否定文・疑問文で]
      1. Oh, don't trouble, thanks. どうぞお構いなく
      2. Don't trouble about me. 私のことは心配に及びません
      3. Don't trouble to come all the way to the office. わざわざ事務所までご来駕賜るには及びません
    5. ♦熟語:
      1. ask for trouble (=look for trouble) 自分で災難を招くような無謀・軽はずみなことをする
      2. be more trouble than worth. 利益より手間の方が大きい
        1. Chickens are more trouble than they're worth. 鶏を飼うなんと手間ばかりだ
      3. borrow trouble 余計な心配をする
      4. mean trouble 後でやっかいなことになる
      5. He was deeply troubled by [about] the rumor. その噂でとても心配した
      6. Don't trouble me with any more questions. もうこれ以上質問しないで下さい
  2. Very: 人を感謝・謝罪する表現での強調表現。但し、あまり使用頻度が高いと紋切り型になる。
    そのため心から気持ちを込めたい時は really, terribly, awfully, extremelyなどを使う
    1. I'm really [terribly, awfully] sorry. 本当にもうしわけない
    2. Thanks a lot [so much]! どうもありがとう
    3. This soup is so [really] good. すごくおいしい
    4. She's exceptionally capable. 並外れて有能です
    5. It was an extremely good presentation. とてもすばらしい発表でした
    6. He's so totally good-looking. 本当にすごくかっこいい
    7. [否定文で] あまり...ではない。それほど...ではない [逆の意味を控えめに]
      1. It's not very hot today. それほど暑くない
      2. He's not a very good swimmer. 泳ぎはあまりうまくない
      3. Are you busy? - Not very. それほどでもないよ
      4. His wife was not very pleased (=was angry) when she discovered the secret.
        彼の妻はその秘密を知って不愉快に思った
    8. [形容詞の最上級を強める表現]
      1. His was the very best speech of all the ones I heard. 今までのスピーチで最高
      2. He'd be the very last man to do such a thing. 絶対にそんなことはしない人だ
    9. [比較級は muchfarで強める; 最上級はveryby farで強める表現]
      1. This book is much better than that. あれよりずっと良い
      2. He drove his car much more carefully than before. ずっと慎重に運転した。
      3. This car is by far the best [the very best] of all. すべての内でずば抜けて良い
    10. ♦熟語:
      1. Her reaction was very Japanese. いかにも日本的
      2. Very good 大変よくできました
      3. Very much so 正にその通り [応諾の場合]
      4. Very well いいですよ [しぶしぶ同意の場合]
        1. You'd better give up smoking. - Oh, very well, doctor if you say so. そうおっしゃるならやめます
    11. [形容詞のvery]
      1. at this very moment ちょうど今
      2. He was killed on this very spot. まさにこの場所で
      3. This is the very thing I've been looking for. これこそ探し求めていた物
      4. She began to weep at the very mention of his name. 彼の名をあげただけで彼女は泣き出した
      5. The very thought of it makes me feel sick. それを考えただけで
      6. at the very bottom of ... ...のどんじりに
 
  82
  1. actually
  2. advise
  3. afraid
  4. agree
  5. all right
  6. apologize
  7. appreciate
  8. ask
  9. believe
  10. better
  11. bother
  12. can
  13. could
  14. chance
  15. disagree
  16. favor
  17. forgive
  18. good
  19. grateful
  20. great
  21. guess
  22. had better
  23. happen
  24. hate
  25. have to
  26. help
  27. hope
  28. how
  29. idea
  30. if
  31. kind
  32. know
  33. let
  34. let's
  35. like
  36. love
  37. may
  38. might
  39. maybe
  40. mind
  41. must
  42. need
  43. nice
  44. ought
  45. perhaps
  46. please
  47. possible
  48. possibly
  49. rather
  50. recommend
  51. seem
  52. shall
  53. should
  54. sorry
  55. suggest
  56. suppose
  57. tell
  58. thank you
  59. think
  60. trouble
  61. very
  62. want
  63. what
  64. why
  65. will
  66. would
  67. wish
  68. wonder
  1. Want:
    1. Do you want...? は物を勧める際などのWould you like ...?よりくだけた言い方
      1. What do you want some tea? お茶要る?
    2. Do you want to do? 相手のしたい意向を尋ねることで誘い・勧め・申し出の表現
      1. Are you hungry? Do you want to get some lunch? - Sure. Let's go. お昼食べに行こか
      2. Do you want to use my phone? - That'd be great. Thanks. 私の電話使う?
    3. I want you to do. は相手が断る余地のないような場合で、非常に強制度が高く命令形に近い
      1. This is all your fault. I want you to go apologize to the customer right now. - Yes, sir.
        すべて君のせいだ。今すぐ先方に謝罪に行って欲しい。- わかりました。
      2. [相手にとって負担のない行為にも使える]
        1. Mr. Smith, I want you to meet my father. 父を紹介したいのですが
    4. Do you want me to do? は、助力を申し出るときなどに使う。相手の意向を問う表現なので
      押し付け度合いは比較的弱く、相手がその申し出を望んでいるか確信していない状況で用いることが多い。
      1. Do you want me to bring a bottle ow wine? I have a good one., - Oh, that'd be great. ワインもってこようか
    5. ♦熟語:
      1. Be [have] everything ... want 求めるものすべて持っている=完璧だ
        1. He doesn't want for anything. 彼は何ひとつ不自由しない
      2. Waste not, want not. 浪費なければ貧乏なし
      3. Do you want a piece of me? 何か用か [喧嘩を売る言葉]
      4. I don't want to do. ...したくはないのですが
      5. if you want もしよろしければ; あなたがお望みでしたら
      6. if you want my advice [opinion] 率直に申し上げますと
      7. It' just what I have always wanted. これこぞ私の欲しかったものです。
      8. Who wants ...?
      9. for (the) want of ... ...がなくて
        1. For want of a better word. 他によい言い方なないので
        2. I'll take this hat for want of a better one. 他にいいのがないからこれにしよう
  2. What: tell, ask, know, wonderなどを用いた間接疑問文での質問は柔らかく遠慮がちな響きになる
    1. Can you tell me what' wrong? どうしたのか教えてくれますか
    2. Do you happen to know what her name is. もしかして彼女の名前知っている?
    3. ♦熟語:
      1. ...and what not [have you] そしてその他いろいろ
        1. They sell candy, cookies and what no [have you].
      2. Now what? さあ今度は何だい?
      3. ... or what? [末尾で] それとも他に何か
      4. So what? それがどうした!
        1. You smoke too much. - So what? だから何?
      5. What? えっ何 [Pardenよりぞんざい]
      6. What about...? ...はどうなの?
        1. I'm going to Spain next month. What about you business?
        2. What about another drink? もう一杯どうですか
      7. What about doing? ...するのはどうですか
        1. What about going to a baseball game? 野球観戦はどうですか [てアイアン]
      8. What ... for? 何のために; なぜ (≒why)
        1. What do you go to school for? 何のために学校に行くの?
        2. What's this bell on the gate for? このベルは何のためのもの?
      9. What if ...? もし...だったらどうしよう
        1. What if they should come late? 万一彼らが遅れてきたらどうしようか
        2. What if we put off the game? 試合を延期したらどうだろう
        3. What if I fail? 失敗したってかまうものか
      10. What is it (now)? 何の用ですか。
        1. Excuse me, sir. - What is it? 何だね
      11. What of...? それがどうだというのだ
        1. What of the rain? 雨ぐらい何んなんだ
      12. What it to you? それがどうしたというんだ; 君には関係ない
      13. What up? 何事だ
        1. What's up with this printer? このプリンタはどうしたんだ
        2. What's up with that? それはどういうことだ
      14. know what it is どういうことか知っている
        1. He knows what it is to be poor. 貧乏がどんなものか知っている
      15. what with ... and (what with) ...あれやこれやで
        1. What with his cold and (what with) lack of practice, he won't be able to play very well today.
          風邪やら練習不足やらで今日は満足にプレーできまい
 
  83
  1. actually
  2. advise
  3. afraid
  4. agree
  5. all right
  6. apologize
  7. appreciate
  8. ask
  9. believe
  10. better
  11. bother
  12. can
  13. could
  14. chance
  15. disagree
  16. favor
  17. forgive
  18. good
  19. grateful
  20. great
  21. guess
  22. had better
  23. happen
  24. hate
  25. have to
  26. help
  27. hope
  28. how
  29. idea
  30. if
  31. kind
  32. know
  33. let
  34. let's
  35. like
  36. love
  37. may
  38. might
  39. maybe
  40. mind
  41. must
  42. need
  43. nice
  44. ought
  45. perhaps
  46. please
  47. possible
  48. possibly
  49. rather
  50. recommend
  51. seem
  52. shall
  53. should
  54. sorry
  55. suggest
  56. suppose
  57. tell
  58. thank you
  59. think
  60. trouble
  61. very
  62. want
  63. what
  64. why
  65. will
  66. would
  67. wish
  68. wonder
  1. Why:
    1. Why don't we ...? 控えめな提案。相手が応じるかはっきりしない場合が多い
      1. Why don't we play one more match? もう一番やらない?
        - Well. I'm tired. Let's play again tomorrow. えっ、疲れたよ。明日またやろう。
      2. I'm sorry, I have to go now. もう行かないと
        - OK, then why don't we discuss it tomorrow? - Fine. では明日また話し合いましょう
    2. Why don't you do? =Why not do? ...しませんか [助言・提案・勧めを積極的に促す]
      1. Why don't you come and see me next Sunday - Sure thanks. うちに遊びに来ない?
      2. Why don't you tell us what you think? ご意見聞かせてもらえませんか
      3. Why don't you just shut up? 黙っててくれない? [非難を込めて]
      4. Why not talk to him directly? 彼と直接話してみたら
        No! There's no way I can do that! そんなことできる訳ないでしょう。
      5. Why don't you try it on? 試着されたら如何?
      6. Why don't you have a seat? He'll be with you shortly. おかけになって下さい。すぐ参りますので。
      7. You look tired. Why don't you lie down and get some rest? 横になって休んだら?
    3. ♦熟語:
      1. Why is it that ...? ...はどうしてか; どういう訳か
        1. Why is is that there's so many earthquakes in Japan. 一体どうしてこんなに地震が多いのか
      2. Why not? (1) どうしていけないの [相手の否定文に対する理由を尋ねる場合]
        1. I'm not going to the dance today. -Why not? - Because I feel sick. どうして行かないの。風邪ぎみなので
        2. Maybe you shouldn't wear that dress. -Why not? なぜだめなの?
        3. Let's not discuss it any more. -Why not? どうして? (したっていいじゃない)
      3. Why not? (2) どうぞどうぞ; もちろんいいとも
        1. Shall we go? -Why not? うんそうしよう
        2. Let's try that new restaurant. -Why not? いいね!
        3. Are you serious? -Yeah, why not? 本気? - ああもちろん!
      4. Why should I...? どうして...しなければならないのか; いやだよ
        1. Why should I answer to any of these questions?
          どうしてこんな質問にいちいち答えなくちゃならないんだ
  2. Will:
    1. If you ... you will ... の形で助言する際に使う
      1. Maybe you'll feel better if you eat something. 何か食べたら気分がよくなるよ
      2. You'll find the answer if you think hard. よく考えれば答えは見つかります
    2. You will do! は、高圧的な命令口調。親が子供に対するように有無を言わせない場合
      1. You will do your homework before watching - But my favorite show is about to start.
        TV. テレビ見る前に宿題しなさい。だって大好きな番組がはじまっちゃうよ
      2. The last person to leave will please kindly turn off the lights. 最後の人は電気を消すこと
    3. I will [won't] 約束をするときの典型的な表現
      1. I'll see you at 8 on Wednesday, then. -All right. See you then. じゃ水曜の8時にね
      2. I'm sorry. I won't let it happen again. もう二度とないように気をつけます
      3. I'll be more careful in the future. 以後もっと気をつけます
    4. Will you ...? 直接的な依頼表現。相手が応じると予測される場合、また親しい関係に用いる
      1. Will you pass me the salt, please? - Here you go. 塩を取ってくれます?
      2. Will you let me know when you're don with it. それを使い終わったら教えて
      3. Will you be quiet? 静かにして下さい
    5. Won't you...? 否定疑問文は相手が了解することを予期しているので、押し付けがましく響く
      1. Hey Liz, I've go to finish this in an hour. Won't you give me a hand? これ手伝ってくれる?
        - It's your job. Do it yourself. あなたの仕事でしょ。ご自分で。
    6. 命令文+ will you [won't you]? 直接的な依頼。親しい相手に。
      1. Let me keep ti till tomorrow, will you? これ明日まで貸しておいてくれるかな?
        - Sure, no problem. See you in the morning. いいよ。じゃまた明日朝に
      2. Have another piece, won't you? もう一切れどうぞ
      3. Come and sit here, will you⤻ ここへ来て座りませんか? [付加疑問文: 上昇調は疑問の気持ち]
      4. Come and sit here, will you⤼ ここへ来て座りなさい! [下降調は念押し]
    7. ♦熟語:
      1. I've switched on the heater so that the room will be warm when he comes back.
        部屋が温まっているようにヒータを付けた [目的を表す]
      2. Laugh as you will, he has reason to be proud. たとえあなたがどんなに笑おうとも、
  3. Would:
    1. If I were you, I would ... もし私があなたの立場だったらという助言・忠告に使う。
      かならずしも経験・知識に基づかなくても個人的・主観的な意見を述べる場合」も含む。
      但し、この想定自体が目上の人には失礼になるので、対等か目下の相手に対して使うのが普通
      1. Have you talked to her since then? Well, if I were you, I would call her and tell her you're sorry.
        私だったら彼女に電話して謝ると思うけどな。
      2. I would think very carefully if I were you. It's a big decision. 私だったらすごく慎重に考えます。
    2. would 多分/おそらく...だろう [現在形のisより柔らかく丁寧な響き]
      1. That would be fine. それで大丈夫でしょう。
      2. How much would it cost? 費用はどの位かかりそう?
      3. Would that be okay? それで大丈夫かな?
      4. That wouldn't be the house we're looking for, surely. まさかあれが探していた家かも。
      5. You wouldn't happen to remember his name, would you. 名前おぼえたりしないよね。
      6. Who would have thought so? そう思ったひとはいないだろうね。
    3. Would you ...?は、Do you ...?やWill you ...?より柔らかく丁寧な響き
      1. Would you agree with that? それに賛成されますか?
      2. What would you recommend? 何がおすすめですか
      3. Would you join us, Ann. 君も一緒に来る?
      4. Would you check to see if you have these shoes in a size 8? -Certainly [店員への依頼]
    4. 命令文+would you? 親しい相手への直接的な依頼の場合が多い。
      1. Oh, Bill, Give me a hand, would you? -Year, sure. ちょっと手を貸してくれる?
      2. Shall I give you a ride -Oh, would you? Thank you. [申し出を受け入れる返答として]
        車で送りましょうか。えっ、いいんですか。ありがとう
    5. ♦熟語:
      1. Would that my elder brother had lived longer! [were still alive]
        兄がもっと長生きして[今行きて]いたらな
      2. Wouldn't = would not
        1. Mary said she wouldn't be at the party. パーティーには出席しないと言った
        2. Wouldn't it be possible to persuade them. 彼わを説得することも可能ではないでしょうか
      3. Would've =would have
        1. I would've been killed in the accident if I had been on the train.
  4. Wish:
    1. I wish I could. 依頼・勧誘に対し、やんわりと断るときに使う。"できるならしたい"気持ちも伝える
      1. How about going on a ski trip with us this weekend?
        -I wish I could, but I already have other plans.
    2. ♦熟語:
      1. Please give [send] my best wishes to you mother.
      2. Your wish is my command. あなたの頼みなら何でも [滑稽]
  5. >Top Wonder:
    1. I wonder +wh節・句; 遠慮がちに質問するとき、聞きにくいことを尋ねる際
      1. I wonder what's going on with them. 彼らはどうしたんでしょう。」
        - Well, last night they had a big quarrel over their children's education.
      2. I'm wondering what you think of it. どう考えていらっしゃるのかと思うのですが
    2. 依頼・許可を求める際の間接的で定年な表現。wonderを過去形にするとさらに間接的になり丁寧。
      相手が断る可能性が高い場合に、押し付けを弱めて依頼する表現。
      1. I was just wondering if you could possibly change the date of our appointment?
        できれば約束を変更していただけないでしょううか
        -Okay. When would be convenient for you?  いいですよ。いつがご都合よろしいですか
      2. I have to give a speech in class next week, and I was wondering if you could help me with it.
        それを手伝ってもらえたらとおもっていたんだけど
      3. I was wondering if I could take a day off net week. 来週お休みを一日いただけないかと...
        -Again You just took a day off last week. また? 先週取ったばかりじゃない
    3. ♦熟語:
      1. It's no wonder (that)... =No wonder ...少しも不思議でない
        1. No wonder he didn't want to go. 行きたがらないのは無理もない
        2. No wonder he refused your offer. 君の申し出を断ったのは当然だ
      2. do [work] wonders 驚くべき効果・結果が生じる; 奇跡に近い
        1. This new medicine has worked wonders for my headache. この新薬は驚くほど効いた
 
 

>Top 92. Difference of British vs. American English:

84

Difference of British English vs. American English

Category

British English

American English

Food
  • tomato [təɑ́ːtoʊ] sauce; biscuit; sweets; chips;
  • crisp; aubergine; maize;
  • tomato [təméitoʊ] ketchup; cookie; candy; French
  • fries; potato chips; eggplant; corn
Car
  • bonnet; boot; winkers; petro; number plate;
  • driving licence; mend; hand brake
  • pedestrian crossing; car park
  • hood; trunk; blinkers; gas; license plate
  • driver’s license; repair; emergency brake
  •  [✕side brake]; crosswalk; parking lot
house
  • apartment; cabinet; lift; tap;
  • rubbish; dustbin; ground floor
  • toilet/lavatory; changing room; canteen
  • garden; shop; pub; eat-in or take-away
  • flat; cupboard; elevator; faucet;
  • garbage/trash; garbage can; first floor
  • rest room/bath room; locker room; cafeteria
  • yard; store; bar;  for here or to-go
Sundry goods
  • tin; rubber; drawing pin; torch; kitchen paper
  • baggage; pram; mobile phone
  • hairwash; handbag; trainers; drawing pin
  • can; eraser; thumbtack; flashlight; paper towel
  • luggage; baby buggy; cell(ular) phone;
  • shampoo; purse; sneakers; thumbtack
Clothes
  • trousers, underwear; washing; rucksack; braces;
  • pants, briefs/shorts; laundry; backpack; suspenders;
Public
  • letter box; postman; postcode; motorway;
  • pharmacy/chemist; underground/tube;
  • noticeboard; shopping centre
  • state school; public school; city centre
  • railway; railway station; ; return ticket
  • pavement; high street; nursery; on offer;
  • mailbox; mailman; zip code; freeway/expressway
  • drugstore; subway;
  • bulletin board; (shopping) mall
  • public school; private school; downtown;
  • railroad; train station; round ticket
  • sidewalk; main street; kindergarten; on sale;
Holiday
  • holiday; movie; football; draw
  • vacation; film; soccer; tie;
Payment
  • note; bill;
  • bill; check;
Others
  • autumn; timetable; full stop; surname;
  • queue; revise test; alight here;
  • fall; schedule; period; last name;
  • line; review test; transfer here
Greetings
  • Hello , all right, Mary?  -Fine, thank you, John.
  • What time is it now?
  • Hi, how are you doing, Mary? Not bad.  Good.
  • Do you have the time?
Daily life
  • Hello, is that John?; I’ll ring you tomorrow.
  • I’ll see you in a fortnight.
  • What do you do for a living? I’m a housewife.
  • rubbish; rubbish bin ゴミ箱; recycling bin;
  • dustman (or refuse collector) [réfjuːs]
  • Hello, is this Jhon?; I’ll call you tomorrow.
  • I’ll see you in two weeks.
  • What do you do for a living? I’m a homemaker.
  • garbage 生ゴミ, trash 一般ゴミ ; trash canゴミ箱;
  • garbage collector
Travel
  • Have you made a reservation for a hotel?
  • We are going to the cinema this evening.
  • interval; Go on holiday;
  • Have you booked a hotel?
  • We are going to the movie this evening.
  • intermission; Go on vacation;
Shopping
  • a shopping trolley in the supermarket.
  • Dining & Orders to Take Out.
  • Handbag; 100 quid (£); The bill please
  • a shopping cart in the supermarket.
  • Dining & Orders To Go.
  • Purse; 100 bucks ($); Check please;
Trafic
  • Motorway; M62; Roundabout
  • Central reservation; Pavement; Cycle lane
  • Zebra crossing; Car park; No Entry; Way out
  • Railway; Return; Coach,  Double decker;
  • Underground (Tube) station; Petro station
  • boot; bonnet; wing; windscreen; number plate
  • Highway (Freeway); Yield; Carpool; Trafic circle
  • Median strip; Sidewalk; Bike lane
  • Crosswalk; Parking lot; Do Not Enter; Exit
  • Railroad; Round trip; Bus;
  • Subway station; Gas station;
  • trunk; hood; fender; windshield; license plate
City
  • City centre; Newsagent’s; Postbox; Postman
  • Reception desk; Surgery; Chemist
  • Bank clerk; Cashpoint; Guildhall
  • Fire/Police station; Block of flats; Corridor
  • Bedsit; Toilet; Engaged; Private;
  • Mind your step; Lift; Ground floor;
  • Downtown; Newsstand; Mailbox; Mailman
  • Front desk; Medical center; Pharmacy
  • Bank teller; ATM; City hall;
  • Fire/Police department; Apartment building; Hall
  • Studio apartment; Restroom; Occupied; Staff only
  • Watch your step; Elevator; First floor;
Automobile
Motercar
     
     
 

>Top 93 Japanese -English Terms for Travel:

85

Japanese -English Terms for Travel

 
  1. 卵の黄身・白身: York/White
  2. 半熟・目玉焼き: half/soft boiled; sunny side up; scrambled egg
  3. ココア・サイダー: chocolate; soda pop, lemonade; (apple) sweet/hard cider
  4. 腐った: rotten; addled; turn sour
  5. 粥: rise porridge; risotto
  6. 薄味: lightly seasoned; weak side; plain
  7. 少なめの: a small serving of rice
  8. 減塩: low/reduced salt; cut down
  9. 苦い・渋い: bitter, astringent; sour
  10. 虫: cockroach; flea; lice; mite, tick; spider; earthworm; centipede; millipede
  11. 食あたり: food poisoning
  12. 下痢・吐き気: diarrhea; vomit
  13. くしゃみ・しゃっくり: sneeze; hiccup
  14. 頭痛・めまい: headache; feel dizzy
  15. 発熱・悪寒: have a fever; get a chill
  16. 棘・棘抜き: thorn; spine; prickle; tweezers
  17. 血圧: high/low pressure; tonómeter; AED (automated external defibrillator)
  18. 気付け薬: restorative, pick-me-up; recovering consciousness
  19. 忘れ物: a thing left behind; a lost article
  20. 盗難・スリ: theft; robber; pickpocket
  21. 詐欺・万引き: fraud; shoplifter
  22. 遺失物取扱所: lost-and-found
  23. 盗難届・盗難保険: robbery report; theft/robbery insurance
  24. 合鍵: duplicate key; spare key; master key
  25. 頭金・保証金: down payment; security money
  26. 釣り銭: change; Exact change only
  27. お勘定: 英Bill/米Check please!
  28. チップ: large/small tip; Cf potato chips/英crisp
  29. すみません(謝罪): Excuse me; Parden me;
    1. I beg your pardon;
    2. Are you all right
    3. I’m sorry to trouble you;
    4. Excuse me for interrupting, but …;
    5. Would you mind speaking a little more slowly?;
    6. I must apologize to you for damaging your car.
  30. すみません(感謝):
    1. Thank you very much;
    2. I don’t know how to thank you!;
    3. Thank you so much for coming all this way.;
    4. You shouldn’t have brought me anything so expensive.;
 
 

>Top 94. Adverbs of Degree

86

Adverbs of Degree (程度の副詞)

 

>Top 95. Starting Expression:

87

Starting Expression (出だし表現)

 
  1. 〜みたいですね:  ¶ It looks like a nice room with a sea view.
  2. 〜のようです:  ¶ You seem to be getting better day by day.
  3. 〜のようです:   ¶ It appears good to take a walk in the park this season.
  4. 〜しようとしても無駄:  ¶ It’s no use trying to persuade me. /crying over spilled milk
  5. もはや〜でない:  ¶ It’ no longer useful, because I bought the same item at another store.
  6. ご親切にありがとう:   ¶ It’s very kind of you to do such a thing for me.
  7. 問題は〜だけ:   ¶ The question/problem is the colors don’t  suit me. / the size is too large.
  8. 一番いいのは〜:  ¶ The best thing to do is to give up others and choose this one.
  9. 本当は〜:  ¶ The truth is that I don’t want to spend too much money on it.
  10. によります:  ¶ It depends on how quickly you can make it.
  11. 正に〜のものです:  ¶ That’s exactly what I wanted such a truly seasonal local dish.
  12. このようなして〜:   ¶ That’s the way of my taste without using too many spices.
  13. 〜したらどうか:  ¶ Why don’t you buy the same product as mine?
  14. 今起きていることは:  ¶ What’s happening now is people are lining up for special sales.
  15. 〜だったらどうする:  ¶ What if I buy both of these items, will I give me a further discount?
  16. 〜であろうとも:  ¶ No matter what you say, I want to proceed as planned.
  17. 〜は間違いありません:  ¶ I have no doubt that you’ll be satisfied if you go there.
  18. 〜が心配です:  ¶ I worried about what’s going on since the bus hasn’t arrived yet.
  19. 〜はない:   ¶ There is no need to be worried. There’s another chance.
  20. 〜させて下さい:  ¶ It’s my first time, but please let me try it.
  21. 〜しさえすればいい:  ¶ All I have to do is to take a rest here for a while.
  22. 〜と聞きました:  ¶ I heard that the store has clothes tailored to fit Japanese sizes.
  23. 〜して欲しいのですが:  ¶ I’d like you to check the bathroom, because no hot water is coming.
  24. 私の考えでは〜:  ¶ My guess is that this product is only worth half the price. (=In my opinion)
  25. 〜してくれますか:  ¶ Could you please pass me that pepper/ tomato sauce?
  26. 私はしていない:  ¶ The phone call on this 〜th day was not made by me.
 
  88
 

>Top 95.1: Negative Form

89

Negative Form (否定形)

交渉には不可欠
  1. What do you think of my new girlfriend?
    1. I really don’t like her. [全然ダメ – 全否定]
    2. I don’t really like her. [それ程ではない – 部分否定]
  2. NOTは、その後の表現を否定 [否定の”カーテン”]
    1. like her (彼女を好ましいと思う) を否定
    2. really like her. (本当に好ましいかというと) それ程ではない
  3. 語順によって意味が異なる。
    1. With my wife’s advice, I didn’t start English lesson.
      [忠告があったので、この英語授業は開始しなかった。→今も開始していない。]
    2. I didn’t start English lesson with my wife’s advice. [忠告があってこの英語授業は開始
      しなかったのではない。→開始したか、開始しなかったとしても別の理由があった。]
  4. NOTは、曖昧な表現になりやすい。
    1. I couldn’t attend the meeting because my parent came.
      1. 両親が来たので会議に参加できなかった。attend the meeting を否定
      2. 両親が来たという理由で会議に参加きなかったのではない。attend以下全部を否定
  5. “明日は雨が降らないと思う”。
    1. I think it will not rain tomorrow. [△:文字通りの英文]
    2. I don’t think it will rain tomorrow. [○: より英語的表現] …it(天候・神様)の意思は変えらない?!
  6. 否定疑問のNOTは回答には考慮しない。¶ Don’t you like English? - Yes, I do./ No, I don’t.
  7. hardly; rarely; scarcely; few; little による否定表現
 

 

>Top 95.1b: Negative Expression:

90

Negative Expression

 
  1. 〜はない:  ¶ There is no information about cancelation of reservations.
  2. 決して〜ない:  ¶ I have never seen such a wonderful scenery.
  3. 何も〜ない:   ¶ I have nothing to complain about this product.
  4. 誰も〜ない:  ¶ No one knows me at the party.
  5. もう〜ない:  ¶ I have no more free days during this trip.
  6. もはや〜ない:   ¶ The tickets are no longer available through the web.
  7. 他に〜ない:    ¶ I have no other place where I want to go.
  8. そんなもの〜ない:  ¶ There are no such things like department stores in this town.
  9. 訳がない:  ¶ There is no way all items that were available until yesterday will be sold.
  10. あまり〜ない:  ¶ Such things may happen from time to time, but not very often.
  11. まだ〜ない:  ¶ I have not decided to buy it yet.
  12. 〜だけでなく〜でもある:   ¶ Going there is not only dangerous, but also prohibited.
  13. あまり〜でない:  ¶ It was not much like a purse, more like a bag.
  14. いつも〜とは限らない:  ¶ Taking good photos is not always easy.
  15. 何も〜ない:  ¶ We had none of these problems on the previous product I bought.
  16. どちらも〜ない:  ¶ Neither he nor she said anything about it.
  17. ありそうもない:  ¶ It is very unlikely for him to do such a thing.
  18. 〜は不可能だ:  ¶ It will be impossible to carry out this plan.    ¶ Nothing is impossible.
  19. .〜ではない:   ¶ It can have a negative impact on the environment.
  20. 〜より少ない:  ¶ Vintage of wine is less important today than in the past.
  21. 〜しない限り:  ¶ You’ll miss the train unless you leave at once. (=if not)
  22. いいから〜しなさい:  ¶ No ifs or buts. Go and take your bath now.
 

 

>Top 95.1c: Negotiation Process:

91

 

  1. 相手の確認・交渉:
    1. 電話/メール等 (冷静に/詐欺・なりすましに注意)
    2. 意思の伝達: (問合せ、要求、引き合い
    3. 相手の返事の確認 (注文書: 承認、否認、別提案)
  2. 契約:
    1. 取引条件: 納入、価格、 支払方法、解約
    2. 契約締結: 契約メモ、契約書、保証書 (修理・返品)
  3. 取引実行:
    1. 保険 (リスク範囲, 保険金額)
    2. 検品 (数量・品質確認)
  4. 支払:
  5. 支払条件: 通貨、支払期限 (現金払い、後払い)
  6. 為替予約:
  7. 明細書:証明書(通関ほか)、保証書

 

>Top 95.1d: Negotiatio Proecess -2:

92

Negotiation Proces (CCDP):

CCDP

  1. Confirm & Negotiate:
    1. Negotiate by phone/email to avoid a scam (impersonation)
    2. Convey our intention: inquiry, request, quotation, offer)
    3. Return confirmation from Seller (approval/reject, counter-offer)
  2. Contract:
    1. Sales condition: delivery, price, payment, cancellation)
    2. Agreement (contract, memorandum, confirm document)
  3. Performance of Delivery
    1. Insurance (risk coverage, insurance premium)
    2. Inspection (confirmation, claim request, cancellation)
  4. Payment
    1. Payment condition: currency, paying bank, due date, usance
    2. Foreign Exchange Futures
    3. Documents (invoice, certificate)
 

 

>Top 95.2: Cliché on Debate

93

Cliché on Debate (HBS-like)

 
  1. * "Competitive strategy":
    1. There are serious of books written by Michael Porter, one of the famous professor of HBS. Competitiveness appeals in various situation of organization, research & development, production, marketing. The viewpoint of competitive advantage or competitive edge will be applied not only in economics, but appears in politics, military and cultural analysis.
  2. * "KSF = Key Success Factor":
    1. At the analysis of case study always starts from the questionnaire of "What is the Key Success Factor?" This phrase as well as 'what is the key unsuccess factor' is always important in reading the case study.
  3. * "What is the problem?":
    1. This question is to pick up the essential point and abstract from lengthy story, usually full of various non essential noises. To grasp the essence in shorter time, and to express in simple and persuasive key phrase is identical with understanding the story itself. And additional comments, exception, contradiction, or even objection which may develop the discussion in the classroom is welcomed, rather than simple compilation of the case materials.
  4. *"Articulation":
    1. Literally this word originated from anatomy meaning 'to unite by forming joints'. But this is used in the cases of to analyze clearly, showing the reasons or preferably fig ures, explaining more concrete or meaningful relation of the context or story. Vague expression, stereotyped opinion or just a mere enumeration of words is attacked by the professor with bullet of question of 'In what sense?', and are asked to explain differently adding the reasons or examples.
  5. * "Why?", "Why not?":
    1. Whenever speaking confidently, the professor gives additional questions with 'Why?' and 'Why not?' So we must prepare the answers responding the next 'Why, Why not' questions. The answer of 'I don't know' means suicide. (If the answer becomes irrelevant or unrelated, which is much better than silence.)
  6. "What would you do?":
    1. In the significant decision making situation of the case study, 'what would you do' question is given if you were the person concerned. Historical fact is the only one, but logical experiments are always possible and useful to think about many if's.
 

>Top 9:

94

 

     
 

>Top 96. Usage of 'it':

95

Usage of 'it' (決まり文句の 'it')

 
  1. あなたの番です:   ¶Who’s next? -It’s your turn.
  2. 気に入るといいのですが: ¶I hope you like it.
  3. ちょっと待って: ¶Hold it. [=Hold on.];  そのままじっとしていて
  4. その調子だ、頑張れ:  ¶Go for it! ; ¶Keep it out! ; That’s it!
  5. やめてよ、やめってってば:  ¶Stop it. ; Stop doing it. ; Cut it out!
  6. ちょっと考えさせて:  ¶I’ll think about it.; ¶Let me sleep on it.
  7. その通り ¶We see a big building over there. That’s it. That’s the building we live in.
  8. いよいよだ。正にそうだ。¶This is it!; ¶This is it. Let’s get started. さあ今だ
  9. やったぞ ¶We (finally) made it. ¶I made it on time. 間に合った
  10. らしいね、と思う ¶I take it that …; ¶I can’t take it anymore! もう限界
  11. 気にしない,、何でもないよ  ¶(Just) Forget it!
  12. 内緒だよ: ¶Keep it secret! (=Keep it to yourself.)
  13. 何とかしろ: ¶Manage it!  ¶I’ll manage it. 何とかしましょう
  14. あなたなら当然だ[良い意味でも悪い意味でも]: ¶You deserve it
  15. 罰が当たるよ: ¶Pay for it! ¶Work hard, or you’ll pay for it. つけが回る
  16. くそっ[失望]; へえ [感嘆]:  ¶Damn it!; ¶Dame it.  I’m proud of you.
  17. その時の事情による:     ¶It depends on the circumstanced.
  18. 仕方がなかった:        ¶It can’t be helped.
  19. めぐり合わせで:               ¶It falls to my lot do carry the message.
  20. 〜するのは光栄である:   ¶It gives me pleasure to do.
  21. それで〜だとよくわかる:  ¶It goes to show that you can’t control everything.
  22. 言うまでもない:                 ¶It goes without saying that punctuality is crucial for business people.
  23. 〜する方がよい:               ¶It is a good idea to go there very early in the morning.
  24. 幸いなことに:                    ¶It is a good thing that we could meet her at the same market.
  25. 〜するとは残念だ:            ¶It is a pity that he left the team.
  26. 〜するのは光栄だ:          ¶It is a pleasure to meet you.
  27. するのは無理もない:          ¶It is a wonder that he didn’t want to go.
  28. そろそろ〜してもいい頃だ:     ¶It is about time that you got up, Bill.
  29. 〜するのも大いに結構だが:  ¶It is all very well to be frugal, but he goes too far.
  30. 〜した方がいい:                      ¶It is as well to stay here.
  31. もうとっくに〜してなければならない: ¶It is high time you went to started.
  32. そんな話は酒のせい:         ¶It is just the drink talking to say such a thing.
  33. もう〜しても無駄だ:            ¶It is not good your discussing the problem.
  34. 〜は問題ない:                    ¶It does not matter how late it is.
  35. 大差はない:           ¶It makes no odds voting for a democrat or a Republican to be a president.
  36. 〜しても仕方がない:          ¶It is no use your trying to deny it.
  37. 〜になってやっと… する:  ¶It is true that he is cleaver, but he lacks dedication.
  38. 〜する価値がある:            ¶It is worth while visiting the town.
  39. 〜なんて訳がない:            ¶It isn’t as if you didn’t knot the rules.
  40. 驚くかも知れないが…:      ¶It may interest you to know that they are getting married soon.
  41. 〜は注目に値する:            ¶It must be remembered/noted that her work is outstanding.
  42. するのも無理はない:         ¶It stand to reason that such poor planning will lead to failure.
  43. 両方に責任がある:            ¶It takes two to tango.
  44. まもなく〜するだろう:         ¶It will not be a long time before he knows how important it is.
  45. 〜してもどうってことない:  ¶It wouldn’t kill you to help me with my work.
  46. どうも〜のようだ:               ¶It would see that he doesn’t like our company.
 
 

>Top 97. The Bible related terms:

96

The Bible related terms (聖書関連用語)

 
  1. Wash hands on: (手を洗って)責任を回避すること <ローマ帝国のピラトが、責任を回避して、イエスの磔を認めた。
  2. God is my help. / So help me God.: 神への宣誓。誓って〜絶対ない。
  3. David beats Goliath.: 小が大に勝つこと、下剋上 <イスラエルのダビデ羊飼い少年とペリシテの巨人戦士との戦争
  4. Holy Grail/Cup: 聖なる杯、困難な探求の対象 <アリマタヤArimatheaのヨセフがイエスの遺体から最後の血を受けた杯
  5. Evil Eye: 凶眼、災難を招く視線。< 福音書では、妬みはadultery姦通と同じ悪
  6. Golden calf: 金の子牛→現代の道徳・宗教的堕落のこと <出エジプトの後、ユダヤ人が堕落して勝手な偶像崇拝をした
  7. Unveiling of Salome: 愛人に操られた関係の象徴 <ヘロデ王が、サロメの踊りの褒美に、洗礼者ヨハネをbeheadしたこと
  8. Armageddon: 世界的な破局のこと <神と悪魔との最後の審判doomに行われる最終決戦の場所の名。
  9. It was good: それで良し。→It was not good. <Genesis 創世記: In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. And God saw the light, that it was good.
  10. Palm Sunday: シュロの日曜日 (Easter直前の日曜); イエスはこの日にイスラエルへ入城し受難から復活のPassion Sundayに至る
  11. Hail Mary: おめでとう。恵まれた方。運を天に任せる”be it done to me according to thy word. ” <7天使(Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel…)の内のGabrielが、The AnnunciationでVirgin Maryに受胎(Conception)告知をした。3/25 Lady Day。
    FIAT (=let it be done) Cf. Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino; Epiphany; 公現祭; 事物・人物の本質が露呈する瞬間; 洞察 <Eureka!。<東方の三賢人(The visit of the Magi)が、星に導かれてイエスの生誕地訪ねた。
  12. Halloween 万聖節(10/31); All Saints’ Day (諸聖人の祝日); St. Valentine Day (2/14); St. Patrick Day (3/17) Green day.
  13. Litany 連祷→長く退屈な話; Icon 聖画像,アイコン; Confession 罪の告白、告解; Sin 原罪、罪; Capital Sins (Pride高慢, Covetousness 物欲, Lust 色欲, Anger 憤怒, Gluttony 貪食, Envy 嫉妬, Sloth 怠惰); Penance 贖罪/ Reconciliation 告解・和解; Confirmation 堅信; Matrimony 婚姻; Anointing of the Sick 病者の塗油;
  14. Devil 悪魔, Demon 悪鬼, Satan 魔王, Black Sheep 持て余し者 (Black=Hellの意) <Satan uses gangs, money, drugs,
     depression to destroy life.; Scapegoat 贖罪の山羊; Casting Stones 石打ちの刑→早まった行動
  15. Gospel 福音書→疑いの余地のない真実; Sermon 説教 =Peacemaker; 仲裁者; Breaking Bread 互いに分け合う
  16. Revelation, Apocalypse: 黙示録→啓示・暴露・驚嘆→終末論
  17. Letters /Epistle 手紙, Epistle of Paul, the Apostle to the Romans; Law 律法, 神との契約→律法より神への信仰優先 [əpɔ́sl]  
  18. Quo vadis, Domine?
  19. Good bye (=God be with ye)  
 
 

>Top 93 How to make long sentences:

97

How to make long sentences (長い文章の作り方)

 
  1. 基本文+[付加] 形容詞+with名詞+動詞ing+動詞過去分詞(受身):
    1. He came home +… → He came home hungry. (お腹をすかせて帰宅)
      →He came home +hungry +tired +with a headache +with a problem +with no money +crying +smelling of alcohol +no wearing glasses +terribly drunk +lost everything
    2. I woke up +... →feeling cold →+finding the window open→+wearing tie +with hangover +lying on the sofa +forgetting everything +without knowing how I returned home +…
    3. What are you doing? +… →+ up +so early +not ready? +watching TV? + not studying homework? +not eating breakfast +not changing your dress +…
    4. I cut my finger. +… cooking +watching TV +thinking about something else +considering today’s schedule +worrying about where to buy a souvenir.
    5. I broke my leg. +…→stepping off the stairs +bumped by someone +fell down something from above.
  2. 基本文の一部[置換]して変化:
    1. How old are you? →hungry, tired, good, late, sick, drunk tall, worried, close, heavy,
    2. That sounds good →wonderful, reasonable, expensive, dangerous, heavy, difficult, delicate,
      good idea, …but needs some more thought, needs to talk with my wife., but I have no time.
    3. I miss you. →Japan; summer; music records; living alone; working; eating out; being young; being free; being single; being confident; not working; not being busy;  not being stressed,
      … [過去を思い出す]
    4. I’m looking forward to seeing you →working there; living alone; learning English
      … [未来が楽しみ]
    5. A is good for B: Sleeping well…health;  laughing… getting rid of stress;  not eating too much …losing weight;  Preparing night before … not forgetting anything.
 
 

>Top 100. Segmentation of Basic Verbs:

98

Segmentation of Basic Verbs (基本動詞の分類)

 

>Key Idiom
>100 rules idiom

>Top 100.1 Basic Verbs of Ancient Japanese:

99

Basic Verbs of Ancient Japanese (古文の基本動詞)

 
  1. かしこき玉の枝をつくらせ給ひて (竹取)
  2. 男もなる日記といふものを、女もてみむとてするなり  (土佐)
  3. むと言ひしばかりに長月の有明の月を待ち出でつるかな (古今)
  4. あかねさす紫野行き標野行き野守はずや君が袖振る (万葉)
  5. 彼にくるしみを与へ、命を奪はんこと、いかでかいたましからざらん (徒然)
  6. 三寸ばかりなる人、いとうつくしうてたり (竹取)
  7. 寝殿に鳶させじとて縄をはられたりけるを (徒然)
  8. いかでこのかぐや姫をてしがな、てしがなと (竹取)
  9. 桃李もの言はねば、誰とともに昔を語らん (徒然)
  10. ゆく河の流れは絶えずして、しかも、もとの水にあらず (方丈)
  11. つひに行く道とはかねて聞きしかど昨日今日とは思はざりしを (伊勢)
>HP Key idiom
 

>Top 100.2 Usages of Basic Verbs:

100

Usages of Basic Verbs (基本動詞の用法)

 
  1. get: ある状態に達する
    1. The rumor got about quickly. 流布 [あちこち辺り]
    2. His speech got across to the crowd. [向こう側に]通じる
    3. get ahead in the business world. 成功・昇進 [頭一つ抜きん出る] {get successful in career}
    4. I can get along without your help. なんとか[順序に沿って] {manage to live or survive}
    5. I get around the difficulties. [回り込んでなんとか]克服・逃れる {deal successfully with a problem}
    6. You’ll never get away with it! [逃げようとしても]そうは問屋がおろさない {escape fro blame or punishment}
    7. I get back my lost memory. [元へ取り戻すように]記憶が戻る{restore}
    8. I get behind with my payments. 支払が[期日の後になり]滞る
    9. Can I get by ? [側を]通り抜ける
    10. He had just enough money to get by. {manage with difficulty to live}
    11. I get down on one's knees. [下にしゃがんで]ひざまづく{get into a kneeling position}
    12. get down to work [仕事に真面目に]取り掛かる {settle down to consider}
    13. The sun got in through the window. [中に通過して]差し込む{manage to pass through}
    14. get off on time. [離れていくように]出発{manage to start}
    15. How are you getting on ? [予定に乗って]うまくいく {make progress in a specified way}
    16. Time is getting on. 時間軸に乗ってどんどん時がたつ {become old}
    17. gets out of paying taxes. [課税の外に]逃れる {avoid an unpleasant duty}
    18. I cannot get over the shock. [困難を乗り越えて]立ち直る {recover from}
    19. I could not get through to the foreigners at all. [文化間の壁を通過して]話が通じる{succeed in communication with}
    20. She got to thinking about it. [の方向に向かって]考え始める{begin to}
    21. The beautiful music really got to me. {effect emotionally}
    22. We got together and discussed it. [一緒に集まって]議論する{meet together}
    23. She got herself up in a new dress. [扮装でupするよう]めかしこむ {beautify oneself with care}
    24. Let me get this one. おごらせて
    25. You’ve got me there. 参った
  2. give: 移動して渡す
    1. He gave away all his money to them. [放り出すように]有り金全部くれてやる{give as a free gift}
    2. I gave away my last chance. [機会を掴みきれず離して]ふいにする {let slip an opportunity}
    3. give the books back to the library. [元へ戻すように]返却{hand back; return}
    4. give in to his view.  [相手の意見を中に]受け入れる {admit, defeat}
    5. give exam papers in to the teacher. [相手の言う通り受け入れて]提出する{submit; deliver}
    6. The gas gave off a strong bad smell. (周囲に散乱して)発する {send forth throw off}
    7. It’ll take 1 hour, give or take a few minutes. 多少増減(はありなし) {plus or minus}
    8. At last our food gave out . 尽きて[アウトになる] {be completely used up}
    9. The engine gave out . 故障[でアウトになる] {fail}
    10. give the key over to the caretaker. [向こう側へ]預ける {hand over}
    11. That evening was given over to discussion. 時間を[向こう側に預ける] {allot to}
    12. I give up smoking. あきらめて[ギブアップ] {cease}
    13. at a giveaway price 捨て[捨て]値で {promotional service}
  3. come: 話し手に近づく; 聞き手の所に行く
    1. How the accident came about ? [予期せぬことが近くで]起こる {happen; arise}
    2. Where did you come across those rare stamps? [掘り出し物に出会って]見つける {find unexpectedly}
    3. Come along with us to go shopping. [一緒に沿って]同伴 {accompany a person}
    4. I wanted a love that didn't come and go. [行ったり来たりしない安定した]恋愛を望む {rise & fall}
    5. Come and see me tomorrow.  遊びに来て見て
    6. My birthday comes around next week. 巡って[近づいて]来る{arrive periodically}
    7. It was a long time before he came around. 意識を取り戻す {recover consciousness} 
    8. Come back and see us anytime. いつでも戻って[帰ってきて] {return}
    9. The memory kept coming back to me. 蘇る {return to one's memory}
    10. She’s trying to come between us. 仲[の間を]裂く {separate the affection of}
    11. I’ll come by to see you later. [側に来たので]立ち寄る {come one's way}
    12. How did you come by the money? 落ちぶれる {gain; acquire}
    13. Come down from there. [乗り物から]降りてくる {fall; descend}
    14. He came down to begging in the streets. {lose wealth, social position}
    15. come down on a person like a ton of bricks. ひどく非難する {blame; scold; punish}
    16. come down with a virus 感染する {become ill with}
    17. a come-from-behind victory [背後からの]逆転勝ち
    18. The tide is coming in. 満ちてくる {become high}
    19. Long skirts are now coming in again. 流行[の仲間入り] {come into fashion}
    20. He came in for his share of the loot. (=what had been stolen) {receive of; get}
    21. It came off to snow. [ふっきれたように]降り出した {fall off}
    22. This lid won't come off. 蓋を取る {get unfastened}
    23. The meeting came off as planned. {happen; take place}
    24. come off looking as a hero [放漫に]振る舞う {look as }
    25. The cork won't come out. 栓が抜ける {become unfastened}
    26. The dirty spot won't come out. シミが消える {disappear}
    27. When do the exam results come out? 結果が出る {become public}
    28. The flowers are coming out. 咲き出す {come into bloom}
    29. My brother came out when he was eleven. [カムアウトの]告白 {reveal one's nature}
    30. The workers have voted to come out. スト決議{英 begin a strike}
    31. These photos have come out well. 現像 {be developed}
    32. Why not come over to see my new PC? [こっちの方へ]見に来る{approach; =come across}
    33. He has now come over to our way of thinking. 同調する {change sides}
    34. He came through on the phone from NY. 通信[が繋がった] {be received by radio/phone}
    35. Her divorce papers have come through. 出版 {be issued}
    36. come through a serious illness. 持ち直す {survive}
    37. Suddenly an idea came to me. 考えが[こちらへやってきて]浮かぶ {=come around}
    38. A storm is coming up. {come near; approach}
    39. A scotch & soda, please. – Coming up ! ただいま[出来上がったらそちらへ行きます] {be about to come}
    40. How do you like your coffee? - Oh, as it comes, please. どのようなものでも {anyway will be acceptable}
 
  101
 
  1. go: 話し手・聞き手から他へ行く
    (went <wend =go in a specified direction) suppletion 補充法の例
    1. A rumor is going about that …という噂
    2. go after the escaped prisoner. [後から追いかけて]追跡
    3. The case went after him. [不利な結果となる]敗訴
    4. go along the party with him. [一緒に連れ立って]行く
    5. What goes around comes around. [巡り巡って]因果応報
    6. Let’s go away from home for a change. [外出して ]出かける
    7. I went back to my youth. [遡って]思い出す
    8. Pride goes before destruction. [先行して発生]
    9. Don’t go beyond your instructions. [の範囲を越えて]いく
    10. as time goes by. [時が側をそのまま]過ぎゆくまま
    11. Prices are going down. 物価[が下方に向かって]下落
    12. Shall I go for a doctor? 医者を[求めて]呼ぶ
    13. This key won’t go in the lock. 鍵が[鍵穴の中に]入る
    14. go in for stamp collection. [没入する]趣味とする
    15. With a rash, the car went into the wall. 衝突[して壁に突っ込む]
    16. He went off without saying good-by. [離れて行き]立ち去る
    17. The party went on until midnight. [そのまま変わらずに]続く
    18. I’m just going out for a walk. [正に外に向かって]外出
    19. He went over to France. [はるか向こう側へ]渡る
    20. We all go through some sad times. [様々くぐり抜けて]経験
    21. The ship went under with several passengers still aboard. [そのまま海面の下に向かって]沈没
    22. The house went up in flames. [火事で上方へ炎となって]延焼
    23. He went up to her and shook hands. [互いに接近して]近づく
    24. Red wind goes well with meat. [互いに引き立て合って]相性がよい
    25. We had to go without food for days なしで済ます
  2. think: 思慮する have a special belief or idea
    1. We’ll think about that.  [その件について]検討しておく
    2. I try to ask him to help, but I thought better of it. [よい結果がでるように]考え直す
    3. think little of working all night. [その結果についてはほとんど何も]苦にしない
    4. Just think of the cost of that picture. [それについてよく]想像
    5. All possible ways have been thought out. よくよく[結果が出せるよう]検討する。
    6. think out what to do next.  次にどうしようか[良い考えを出す]
    7. think over what you said, and I’ll call back. [考えを巡らせて]熟考する
    8. think twice about investment. よくよく[再度]考える
    9. think up some outrageous scheme. [違った次元に向かって]途方もない考えを出す
    10. She’s thought well of in literary circles. [良く思われていて]評判がよい
    11. To think that I should live to hear such words. その件は以下だとは...
    12. Which do you think is taller,… それについてはどう思いますか
    13. What do you think of Japanese food? [これからの食事については]どう思うか
    14. I’m thinking of emigrating to UK. [について]思案している
    15. I thought you might like some cheese. [ひょっとして好きかと]思いまして
    16. I thought as much. そんな所だと思った
    17. I should/would think [考えてみるとおそらく] の方がよい
    18. She was thought to have left the job. [というように]考えられた
  3. say: 言葉で表現 utter words
    1. People say that = It is said that … と言われる
    2. ‘WANTED,’ said the poster. という掲示があった
    3. Let’s run, say, one mile. いわば...位なら
    4. As one might say いわば言ってみれば
    5. go without saying 言うまでもないことだが
    6. Don’t say you’ve left your passport? まさか...と言うんじゃないでしょうね
    7. Don’t say that! There’s just a little more. もう少し
    8. Have you ever eaten it? I can’t say I have. 多分
    9. I must say I like this painting. これが好きと[言わない訳に行かないほど]全く
    10. He is impolite, not to say rude. とは言わないまでも
    11. I should/would say … まあ[もし私に言わせてもらえれば]でしょうね
    12. You are cleverer than me, that's not saying much. 取り立てて言うほどことでもないけど
    13. There is no saying what time she will come. 何時に来るかは[言うことはできなけど]
    14. Though I say it myself, I can't support that party. 自分で言うのも何だけど
    15. What would you say taking a walk in the park? 散歩[しましょうといったらどう答えますか]
    16. What (do you have) to say for yourself? これについては何かご自身で言い訳がありますか
    17. Have some ice cream? I wouldn’t say no. お願い
    18. last Monday, that is to say May 5. 即ち換言すれば
    19. Say no more! それ以上言わないで
    20. I didn’t tell a lie, she said to herself. [自身で] 心中思う
    21. …handsome, to say nothing of being intelligent. とは言えないまでも
    22. Whatever you say. おっしゃる通りにします
    23. What do you say to going for a drive? [もしこう言ったら]どうだろうか [丁寧な提案]
    24. Say what you like about it, I think this car is nice. 君が何と言おうとも...
    25. As the saying goes, there’s no smoke without fire. 諺として
    26. You said it! おっしゃる通り同感です
 
  102
 
  1. see: 見て知る discern visually
    1. you should see a doctor 診てもらう
    2. see something[a lot] of her 彼女に時々[よく]会う
    3. see little [nothing] of him. ほとんど [全然]会わない
    4. (It’s been) nice seeing you. お会いできてよかったです
    5. Come and see us on Sunday. [来て会いに来て]いらっしゃい
    6. see her home/to the bus/on the bus 家まで/バス停まで/バスに乗るまで見送る(=see off)
    7. see the sight of Paris パリ見物をする
    8. Let me see your passport. パスポートを拝見します
    9. See how I operate the computer. コンピュータの操作のし方
    10. 18C. saw the American Revolution. 18Cに革命が起こった
    11. as I see it =in my opinion 私の考え
    12. Did you see about renting a car? 手配
    13. Seen against the sky, it looked really beautiful. 空を背景に
    14. Can’t you see out her lies? [最後まで徹底的に]見抜く
    15. He saw the job through to the end. 仕事を最後までやり遂げた
    16. They saw Bill through his troubles. ビルを助けて問題を切り抜けさせてやった
    17. Who is seeing to the arrangements for the meeting? 誰が準備しているのか
    18. See to it that you don’t make a mistake. ...取り図るよう気をつける
    19. We had to ask him to see if he was telling the truth. かどうか確かめる
    20. What do you see in boxing? [中を覗き込んで]どこが魅力か
  2. make: 手を加えて作る form by putting parts together
    1. I couldn’t make myself understood in English. 通じ
    2. She will make him a good bride. よい嫁
    3. I’ll make an excuse for my delay.  言い訳
    4. make away with the money. [金と共に]持ち逃げする
    5. This makes for good human relations. [目的に向かって]生み出す
    6. Paper is made from wood. [形状をとどめない原材料]から作る
    7. She made the strawberries into jam. [材料を変化させて]を作る
    8. He couldn’t make it in business. [ともかくそれでうまくいく]成功
    9. What time shall we make it? 何時に待ち合わせしようか [その時間は]
    10. I managed to make out on his salary.  [やっと見える形として]なんとか生活
    11. The chair is made of wood. [原材料がわかる形]から作る
    12. I made my property over to my wife. [資産を飛び越えて]譲渡する
    13. make up a schedule for the trip. [化粧・扮装・組立で]計画を立てる
    14. You wear too much makeup. 化粧がきつい
    15. Try to make up for the loss of study. [化粧・粉飾してでも]取り戻す
    16. Hardships are the making of a man. [人についての]成功原因
    17. a doctor in the making 医者[を製造途中]の卵
    18. a make-believe sleep [信じさせるように]たぬき寝入り
    19. This camera is of foreign make. [よく出来た]外国製
  3. be: ゐる; 存在 exist, stay, occur
    1. I’ll be there in a minute. すぐそちらへ[存在するように] 行きます
    2. What I want you to do is (to) clean up your mess. してもらいたいのは
    3. Be it ever so humble, there’s no place like home.いかに
    4. I’m leaving you tomorrow. するつもりです
    5. When will you be visiting us? いつ[存在するように]いらっしゃいますか
    6. She’s being as nice as she can. のように振る舞う
    7. We are to meet at seven. 予定になっている [手筈のbe to]
    8. The form is to be filled in and return. 義務
    9. After his accident, he was never to get a chance. 運命
    10. If you are to succeed, you must work hard now. 成功したいと思うならは [be to表現]
    11. What would you do if a war were to break out? 万一戦争が起きたら
    12. What was stolen from your pocket? 何が盗まれたか [受け身]
    13. All my lecture was finished. すべて完了
    14. They were to have been married. 結婚することになっていたが[しなかった]
    15. The ring was not to be found anywhere. どこにも見つからなかった
 
  103
 
  1. do: 為: する・ふるまうperform, work, solve
    1. I’m afraid I did talk too frankly. 本当に率直に [強調 do]
    2. Do be quiet! / Tell me, do. お願い
    3. Only yesterday did I see him. 倒置強調、やっと
    4. I live in Kobe. – So do I. 私も
    5. What do you do (for a living)? 生計はどうして立てているか
    6. I’ll do my best in everything. 最善を尽くす
    7. I’ll do the dishes. 皿洗いをする
    8. do my face/my teeth/the flowers/my hair/my face/
    9. do the room/do garden/ [doは曖昧]
    10. The restaurant doesn’t do lunch. やっていない
    11. do my lessons 予習/ do a problem 問題を解く
    12. do Hamlet/do the host ホスト役
    13. Too much drinking will do you harm. 体に悪い
    14. Will you do me а favor? お願い
    15. This desk will do us nicely. 間に合う
    16. He is doing physics. 物理専攻
    17. do a problem; do a sum. 問題 /合計
    18. They do me very well at the restaurant. 良い料理
    19. When in Rome, do as the Romans do. 郷に入れば
    20. How did you do in the examination? 試験のでき
    21. This car won’t do. この車ではだめだ
    22. He is doing badly after his operation. 思わしくない
    23. Our company is doing well. 業績は良好
    24. That will do . 結構だ
    25. Do away with an old curtain. 廃棄する
    26. Do as you would  be done by. してもらいたいように
    27. The rock will do for a hammer. 代わりになる
    28. I can’t do with his rude manner. 我慢できない
    29. If we can’t get meat, we’ll have to do without it. それなしでやる
    30. Have you  done with it. もう終わったの
    31. Well done. Excellent speech. よくやった
    32. What that car doing in my garage? 何でここにあるのか
    33. Can I ….? Sure, will do ! いいとも
  2. Put: 置く, lay, set, place
    1. I can't put his idea across to you. 納得させられない [相手側に届かない]
    2. put aside some money 金を蓄える [脇に置いておく]
    3. Put your car away in the garage. 元の場所に片付ける [元のawayの場所へ]
    4. put him down for the marathon 出場登録 [書き留めて登録箱へ下ろす]
    5. Trees put forth new leaves and buds in spring. [新葉・芽が前に出る]
    6. put him forward as chair [推薦して前に押し出す]
    7. put in a word for her with her parents [口添えに一言口を差し入れる]
    8. put off the athletic meeting till the first fine day [別の離れた良い日に延期]
    9. put his hat on his head [帽子を頭にかぶる]
    10. put out a candle [息を吹き出して消す]
    11. Please put me through to Mary [電話線を繋げて]
    12. put a baby to sleep 赤ん坊を寝貸し付ける [寝る方向にもっていく]
    13. put a machine together 組立 [部品を一緒に組み立てる]
    14. put up at a hotel 宿泊[宿泊本陣として印を立てる]
    15. We have to put up with the bad weather. 我慢 [立ったまま我慢]
 
 

>Top Frequently Used Idioms 100.4:

104

Frequently Used Idioms (よく使うイディオム)

  1. I couldn't agree more
  2. into thin air
  3. stab in the back
  4. backstabber
  5. bring home the bacon
  6. touch base with
  7. beat around the bush
  8. ring the bell
  9. bite off more than
  10. miss the boat
  11. hit the books
  12. water under the bridge
  13. burn the midnight oil
  14. butterflies in one's stomach
  15. cart before the horse
  16. let the cat out of the bag
  17. keep one's chin up
  18. a chip on one's shoulder
  19. count one's chicken
  20. cross that bridge
  21. cry wolf
  22. dance
  23. dare
  24. real deal
  25. deserve
  26. you deserve it
  27. be down to
  28. a drop in the bucket
  29. play it by ear
  30. go with the flow
  31. get to
  32. have got to
  33. guess what
  34. bury the hatchet
  35. wear one's heart on one's sleeve
  36. hot water
  37. judge by its cover
  38. not that I know of
  39. I was like
  40. on the same page
  41. out of the frying pan
  42. on our plate
  43. in a nutshell
  44. chase rainbows
  45. smell a rat
  46. for real
  47. get real
  48. the ship has sailed
  49. I'll say
  50. I wouldn't say no.
  51. I would say...
  52. not to say ...
  53. say for oneself
  54. say what you like
  55. say that again
  56. say when
  57. what do you say to...
  58. You don't say (so)!
  59. have one's say in
  60. old school
  61. make any sense of
  62. or something
  63. that's something
  64. sticky fingers
  65. what's your take on it?
  66. tell me about it
  67. rule of the thumb
  68. sit tight
  69. lose one's touch
  70. walk on eggshells
  71. same wavelength
  72. under the weather
  73. wing it
  74. wolf in sheep's
  1. This pancakes are so good! I couldn't agree more! I could just keep eating them! (=You can say that again!)
  2. My report was on my desk but it has vanished into thin air!
  3. He's the last person who'd stab you in the back.
  4. Watch your back. He's a backstabber. -Thanks.
  5. If you're going to stay home with the kids, that means I'll have to bring home the bacon.
  6. I'll have to touch base with headquarters before I can make a decision on this.
  7. Come on! Stop beating around the bush and get to the point.
  8. These clothes will surely ring the bell with young women.
  9. I told my boss that I would be able to help on this project, but I might have bit off more than I can chew.
  10. There were tickets available last week, but he missed the boat by waiting till today to try to buy some.
  11. You have a test tomorrow, so I want you to hit the books.
  12. After the decision was made, the company considered the matter water under the bridge.
  13. Look like I might have to burn the midnight oil tonight.
  14. As ready as I can be. I always get butterflies in my stomach before presentations though.
  15. She often put the cart before the horse when she's extremely busy.
  16. She let the cat out of the bag with her interest in baby clothes.
  17. I failed my driving test again. I'm never going to pass. -Keep your chin up. You'll pass next time.
  18. He felt like an outsider, which led to him having a chip on his shoulder.
  19. The runner thought he has won a gold medal until the score board shows that he was actually second. Don't count your chickens before they are hatched.
  20. We don't have a reservation. What if they're all booked up? -We'll cross that bridge when we get to it.
  21. My son has cried wolf about being sick so many times just to skip school.
  22. Powerful politicians seem to have the council dancing to their tune.
  23. How dare you say such a thing to me!
  24. Who's that guy? He's the rookie pitcher. -Wow. He's the real deal.
  25. She deserves a medal for putting up with that husband of hers.
  26. You've worked so hard, you really deserve it.
  27. Would you be down to eat ramen tonight? -Sure, I'm down.
  28. A 10 dollar monthly pay raise is like a drop in the bucket.
  29. Internal Revenue Service? We don't know what they really want. Let's play it by ear.
  30. I'm arriving in Tokyo, and I'll just go with the flow from there.
  31. She got to thinking that all was her fault. (=start arrive, reach)
    1. We are getting to know each other.
    2. I got to see you yesterday.
  32. I've got to finish this report by tomorrow. [have goto to =got to =have to =must]
    1. We got to meet the CEO at the conference. [=must]
    2. I need to get to cleaning my room before my mother arrives.
  33. He remarried and guess what; he remarried his first wife.
    1. September is a good guess for the next meeting.
  34. OK, let's bury the hatchet! No more fighting.
  35. I wore my heart on my sleeve and told her how I really felt about her.
  36. She must be in hot water because she looks tense this morning.
  37. She doesn't look very intelligent, but you can't judge a book by its cover?
  38. Does she have any brothers? -Not that I know of.
  39. My friend was so drunk he started dancing in the train and I was like what are you doing?
  40. I want to make sure everyone is on the same page.
  41. Many kids who try to run away from unhappy homes discover that they've jumped out of the frying pan into the fire when they try to live on their own.
  42. To promote this project we have a lot of things on our plate.
    1. I've been very busy. I have a full plate today, I' trying to complete the income tax forms by the deadline.
  43. That's the story in a nutshell.
  44. Some students spend a lot of energy chasing (after) rainbows.
  45. Do you smell a rat? Because there's something not quite right.
  46. I never thought it would happier for real.
  47. Oh, get real! You're not tall enough to be a model.
  48. I was going to audition for the lead role, but they've closed it already. I guess the ship has sailed.
  49. Do you like music? - I'll say, I love it.
  50. I wouldn't say no to your proposal.
  51. The speech is rather dull, I would say.
  52. He was large, not to say fat.
  53. What have you got to say for yourself?
  54. Say what you like, I think she is a pretty girl.
  55. This movie is very boring. -You can say that again.
    1. She always looks so stylish. -You can say that again! She's always wearing beautiful clothes.
  56. Say when! -When (That's enough)
  57. What do you say to taking a rest?
  58. You don't say (so). In that case, how about some yogurt? It will help.
  59. I have my say in this agenda.
  60. She was a teacher of the old school, and believed in strict discipline.
  61. Can't you make any sense of what he's saying?
  62. Meg didn't come. She missed he train or something.
    1. She's a writer or something.
  63. That's something. This is the most beautiful sight that I have ever seen.
  64. In the country, it's not quite unusual for high officials in the government to have sticky fingers.
  65. Have you looked at the sales report? What's your take on it.
  66. The manager is so harsh on us these days. Tell me about it!
  67. As a rule of thumb, Japan is efficient in manufacturing, but quite the contrary when it comes to distribution.
  68. We're advising our clients to sit tight and neither to buy nor sell.
  69. If you lose your touch, you can no longer do something as well as you could before: It's good to see their goalkeeper's not losing his touch.
  70. I'm always walking on eggshells with my wife. I never know when she's going to get angry.
  71. They are not on the same wavelength about how to deal with it.
  72. I'm feeling a little under the weather.
  73. I hadn't had time to prepare the talk so I just had to wing it.
  74. The new vehicle is just a wolf in sheep's clothing, a detuned racing engine is hiding inside its sensible sedan body.
  1. その通り!
  2. 跡形もなく消えた
  3. 不意打ち的に裏切る
  4. あいつは裏切り者だ
  5. 生活費を稼がないと
  6. 本社と相談しなければ
  7. 遠回しの言い方はやめて要点を
  8. きっとピント来る、きっと受けるよ
  9. 能力以上に背伸びし過ぎちゃった
  10. 好機を逃してくやしい思いをする
  11. 猛勉強する
  12. 過去の問題ということにした
  13. 夜なべをしなければならないかも
  14. いつも緊張しちゃう
  15. 本末転倒なことをする
  16. うっかり秘密がバレてしまった
  17. 前向きに考えて
  18. 喧嘩腰
  19. 取らぬ狸の皮算用
  20. いざとなったら考えよう
  21. 何度も嘘をつく狼少年
  22. 忖度させる
  23. よくもそんなこと言える
  24. 彼は半端じゃないね。
  25. 称賛に値する
  26. 当然の結果よ
  27. 食べに行くのどう。いいね、行こう
  28. 焼け石に水だ
  29. 出たとこ勝負
  30. そこからは成り行きに任せる
  31. だと思い始めた
    1. a
    2. 昨日会えたね
  32. 来るまでに部屋掃除しなければ
  33. がいい線だ
  34. 仲直りしよう。[hatchet 手斧]
  35. 気持ちを露骨に話す [鎧の袖の愛の証のハンカチをつける]
  36. 今ピリピリしているが
  37. 外見で判断するな
  38. 私の知る限りいません
  39. っていう感じでした
  40. 皆が状況を理解している
  41. 悪い状況から脱出したと思ったらより困難な状況へ
  42. 今日も大忙しだった。
  43. 極めて簡単に言うと
  44. 叶わぬ夢を追う
  45. 何か怪しいと思う
  46. そんなこと本当に起こるとは
  47. 冗談だろ!
  48. 時すでに遅しの状況
  49. もちろん
  50. 喜んで
  51. おそらく
  52. ...とは言わないまでも
  53. 言い訳する
  54. なんと言おうと
  55. 本当にその通り
    1. その通りだよ。[何度聞いても同感]
  56. どこまで (注水)
  57. ...はどうですか
  58. まさか; ほんと
  59. ...ついて発言がある
  60. 保守頑迷 [流派]
  61. 意味ができますか [理解]
  62. 遅れたか何かで
    1. 作家かそんな感じの人
  63. すごい、mんmん c こんなこと初めて [重要な]
  64. 収賄体質なのは珍しくもない
  65. 君の見解は?
  66. 言われなくてもわかる
  67. 目の子で
  68. 自説を曲げない [堅く]
  69. 勘が鈍る [感触・勘]
  70. 十分留意しないと
  71. 同じ考えではない
  72. 体調が悪い [weather 荒天]
  73. 即興でやらなければならない [舞台のそで]
  74. 羊の皮を被った狼
 

>Top 100. 5 English Riddles

105

English Riddles (英語のなぞなぞ)

  1. age
  2. apple
  3. asleep
  4. barber
  5. bat
  6. birthday
  7. blueberry
  8. branch
  9. breath
  10. c
  11. cake
  12. candle
  13. carrot
  14. chalkboard
  15. chip
  16. cloud
  17. coat
  18. coffin
  19. coin
  20. cold
  21. come out
  22. compass
  23. cross
  24. darkness
  25. day and night
  26. dictionary
  27. dozens
  28. e
  29. e
  30. ear
  31. echo
  32. egg
  33. elbow
  34. electric
  35. France
  36. hand
  37. heart
  38. heavy
  39. high
  40. hole
  41. interest
  42. kangaroo
  43. key
  44. last place
  45. left
  46. lemon
  47. letter
  48. lettuce
  49. lid
  50. light
  51. lighthouse
  52. lunch & dinner
  53. match
  54. medicine
  55. month
  56. mushroom
  57. name
  58. needle
  59. number
  60. nut
  61. o
  62. palm
  63. primate
  64. promise
  65. r
  66. read
  67. river
  68. rubber band
  69. run
  70. secret
  71. seven
  72. shadow
  73. shorter
  74. silence
  75. single
  76. snow
  77. snowball
  78. spot
  79. stamp
  80. staircase
  81. stick
  82. stone
  83. story
  84. stories
  85. sunny
  86. teapot
  87. towel
  88. tweet
  89. twister
  90. water
  91. wave
  92. worm
  93. wrong
  94. zebra
  1. What goes up but never comes down?
  2. There are 3 apples in the basket and you take away 2. How many apples do you have now?
  3. What question can you never answer yes to?
  4. I shave every day, but my beard stays the same. What am I?
  5. What animal is always at a baseball game?
  6. A man dies of old age on his 25th birthday. How is this possible?
  7. What fruit can you never cheer up?
  8. I have branches, but no fruit, trunk or leaves. What am I?
  9. I'm light as a feather, yet the strongest person can't hold me for five minutes. What am I?
  10. Whick letter of the alphabet has the most water?
  11. Why did the student eat his homework?
  12. I'm tall when I'm young, and I'm short when I'm old. What am I?
  13. I'm orange, I wear a green hat and I sound like a parrot. What am I?
  14. What is black when it's clean and white when it's dirty?
  15. What is a computer's favorite snack?
  16. I have no wings, but I can fly. And I have no eyes, but I can cry. What am I?
  17. What kind of coat can be put on only when wet?
  18. The person who makes it has no need of it; the person who buys it has no use for it. The person who uses it can neither see nor feel it. What is it?
  19. I have a tail and a head, but no body. What am I?
  20. What can you catch but not throw?
  21. How are false teeth like stars?
  22. I'm so simple that I can only point, yet I guide people all over the world.
  23. Why did the kid cross the playground?
  24. The more of this there is, the less you see. What is it?
  25. What breaks yet never falls, and what falls yet never breaks?
  26. Where does today come before yesterday?
  27. A word I know, six letters it contains, remove one letter and 12 remains. What is it?
  28. I'm the beginning of everything, the end of everywhere. I'm the beginning of eternity, the end of time and space. What am I?
  29. You see me once in June, twice in November and not at all in May. What am I?
  30. What has ears but cannot hear?
  31. What can't talk but will reply when spoken to?
  32. What has to be broken before you can use it?
  33. What can you hold in your left hand but not in you right?
  34. If an electric train traveling south, which way is the smoke going?
  35. What's the capital of France?
  36. What has hands and a face, but can't hold anything or simle?
  37. What has 13 hearts, but no other organs?
  38. Which is heavier: a ton of bricks or a ton of feathers?
  39. Why did the kid bring a ladder to school?
  40. What gets bigger when more is taken away?
  41. I used to be a banker but I lost interest.
  42. What jumps when it walks and sits when it stands?
  43. What are many keys but can't open a single lock?
  44. When you look for something, why is it always in the last place you look?
  45. Which side of an apple pie is the left side?
  46. She bought an apple and a leon: The apple was a peach but the lemon was a lemon.
  47. Since letters are made up of words, how an words be made up of letters?
  48. What has a head but no brain?
  49. What can't be put in a saucepan?
  50. I can fill a room, but I take up no space. What am I?
  51. What kind of house weighs the least?
  52. What two things can you never eat for breakfast?
  53. You walk into a room that contains a match, a kerosene lamp, a candle and a fireplace. What would you light first?
  54. I spent three years in college taking medicine.
  55. What month of the year has 28 days?
  56. What kind of room has no walls or corners?
  57. It belongs to you, but other people use it more than you do. What is it?
  58. What has one eye but can't see?
  59. What 3 numbers give the same result when multiplied and added together?
  60. How do you get a squirrel to like you?
  61. What would you find in the middle of Toronto?
  62. Name the kind of tree you can hold in you hand?
  63. What do you call a couple of chimpanzees sharing an Amazon account?
  64. What can you break, even if you never pick it up or touch it?
  65. You'll find me in Mercury, Earth, Mars and Jupiter, but not in Venus or Neptune. What am I?
  66. When is a green book not a green book?
  67. What has a mouth but can't speak?
  68. What kind of band never plays music?
  69. What can run but cannot walk?
  70. If you've got me, you want to share me; if you share me, you haven't kept me. What am I?
  71. I'm an odd number. Take away a letter and I become even. What number am I?
  72. I follow you all the time and copy your every move, but you can't touch me or catch me. What am I?
  73. What five-letter word becomes shorter when you add two letters to it?
  74. What goes away as soon as you talk about it?
  75. You see a boat filled with people, yet there isn't a single person on board. How is that possible?
  76. I fall but I never get hurt.
  77. What kind of ball doesn't bounce?
  78. What did the Dalmatian say after lunch?
  79. What can travel around the world while staying in a corner?
  80. What goes up and down but doesn't move?
  81. Why does my swizzle stick have an eraser?
  82. What word of five letters has one left when two are removed?
  83. There's a one-story house in which everything is yellow. Yellow walls, yellow doors, yellow furniture. What color are the stairs?
  84. What building in your town has the most stories?
  85. It's raining at midnight, but the forecast for tomorrow and the next day is clear. Will there be sunny weather in 48 hours?
  86. What starts with T, ends with T, and has T inside it?
  87. What gets wet as it dries?
  88. What do you call two birds in love?
  89. What is a tornado's favorite game to play?
  90. What can run but cannot walk?
  91. How do we know that the ocean is friendly?
  92. What's worse than finding a worm in your apple?
  93. There's only one word in the dictionary that's spelled wrong. What is is?
  94. The English alphabet goes from A to Z but my name goes from Z to A. What am I?
  1. Your age.
  2. -You have 2 apples. You took away 2 apples and left 1 in the basket?
  3. Are you asleep yet?; Are you dead?
  4. A barber.
  5. A bat.
  6. He was born on Feb. 29.
  7. A blueberry.
  8. A bank
  9. Your breath.
  10. C.
  11. Because the teacher told him it was a piece of cake. [容易なこと]
  12. A candle.
  13. A carrot.
  14. A chalkboard.
  15. Computer chips. [chip: fried potato & microchip; Cf tip=pointed end; some money]
  16. A cloud.
  17. A coat of paint.
  18. A coffin.
  19. A coin.
  20. A cold.
  21. They come out at night. [come out: emerge & be removed]
  22. A compass
  23. To get to the other side. [(当たり前の)反対側に行くため]
  24. Darkness.
  25. Day and night.
  26. The dictionary.
  27. Dozens
  28. e.
  29. e.
  30. A cornfield. [穂]
  31. An echo.
  32. An egg.
  33. Your right elbow.
  34. No smoke as it's an electric train.
  35. The letter F.
  36. A clock.
  37. A deck of cards. [組]
  38. Neither, they are both weigh a ton.
  39. Because he wanted to go to high school.
  40. A hole.
  41. [interest: the feeling; money paid regularly at a rate]
  42. A kangaroo
  43. A piano.
  44. Because when you find it, you stop looking.
  45. the side that han't been eaten. [leave -left]
  46. [peach 良品 vs. lemon 不良品]
  47. [letter: 文字 (手紙) vs 文学]
  48. A lettuce [a head of lettuce レタス1個; 結球]
  49. It's lid.
  50. Light.
  51. A lighthouse. [light house]
  52. Lunch and dinner.
  53. The match.
  54. Are you well now? [medicine 医学 vs. 薬]
  55. All of them.
  56. A mushroom.
  57. Your name.
  58. A needle.
  59. 1,2, and 3.
  60. Act like a nut [like nut 必死にやる]
  61. The letter o.
  62. A palm tree!
  63. PRIME-mates
  64. A promise.
  65. The letter r.
  66. When it is read. [read-read →red]
  67. A river.
  68. A rubber band.
  69. WAter
  70. A secret.
  71. Seven.
  72. Your shadow.
  73. Short.
  74. Silence.
  75. All the people on the boat are married.
  76. Snow.
  77. A snowball.
  78. That hit the spot.[hit the spot これが欲しかった]
  79. A stamp.
  80. A staircase.
  81. Oh! That's why. It's my pencil. [swizzle: シェイク]
  82. Stone
  83. There aren't any. It's one-story house.
  84. The public library [story: novel & floor]
  85. No, it won't be sunny because it'll be dark out. In 48 hours, It'll be midnight again.
 
  1. 7A teapot.
  2. A towel.
  3. Tweethearts [<sweetheart]
  4. Twister [つむじ風; 早口言葉]
  5. A towel.
  6. It waves. [wave: move one's hand to and fro; swaying motion]
  7. Finding half a worm.
  8. The word wrong.
  9. A Zebra.
 

>Top 100. 6 English Jokes

105b

Enlgish Jokes (英語のジョーク)

  1. abroad
  2. account [news]
  3. across
  4. acute
  5. address
  6. ahead
  7. air
  8. alike
  9. analyze
  10. answer
  11. arm
  12. arrow
  13. assist
  14. ate
  15. atmosphere
  16. attack
  17. avail


  18. Bach
  19. bachelor
  20. balance
  21. ball
  22. ball
  23. band
  24. band
  25. bank
  26. bar
  27. bar
  28. barbecue
  29. bark
  30. bark
  31. bat
  32. batter
  33. bean
  34. bean
  35. bear
  36. bear
  37. bear
  38. beat
  39. beat
  40. bed
  41. bed
  42. before
  43. bill
  44. bill
  45. blew
  46. buzzy

  47. call
  48. excellent
  49. eye
  50. far
  51. kidding
  52. line
  53. lion
  54. long
  55. love


  56. magazine
  57. mango
  58. march
  59. marry
  60. mind
  61. miss
  62. nail
  63. negative
  64. noble


  65. object
  66. old
  67. or
  68. order
  69. over


  70. patient
  71. pear
  72. pen
  73. pick
  74. pin
  75. place
  76. plot
  77. pool
  78. poor
  79. pound
  80. pray
  81. pretty
  82. publicly


  83. rain
  84. raise
  85. range
  86. relative
  87. retire
  88. right
  89. ring
  90. ring
  91. room
  92. run
  93. rust


  94. size
  95. skip
  96. skirt
  97. soup
  98. spirit
  99. spokes
  100. spring
  101. star
  102. start
  103. state
  104. suffering


  105. take
  106. tale
  107. tall
  108. teach
  109. telephone
  110. temple
  111. tell
  112. thick
  113. thirst
  114. tired
  115. to
  116. to
  117. toast
  118. tooth
  119. towel
  120. tulip
  121. twig


  122. unaware
  123. uneasy
  124. vanish
  125. view
  126. Vogue
  127. waist
  128. will
  129. wind
  1. Did you hear about the brilliant geography teacher? -He had a broad (abroad) knowledge of his subject. [abroad vs a broad]
  2. That wasn't a big account of your daughter's wedding in the paper. -N, the big account was sent to me. 勘定書き vs. 記事]
  3. A stout lady came up to the policeman and said, "Could you see me across the street? The policeman replied, "Lady I could see a mile away." [横切り vs. 向こう側]
  4. Miss Smith, you have acute appendicitis. -I came here to be examined - not admired. [急性 vs. a cute]
  5. Do you know Lincoln's Gettysburg Address? No, I didn't know he had moved. [演説 vs. 住所]
  6. Work hard and you'll get ahead. -I've got a head. [a head vs. ahead]
  7. Why did the bald man stick his head out of the train window? To get some fresh air. [air vs. hair]
  8. Men are all alike. -Yes, men are all I like. [alike vs. I like]
  9. Give me a sentence with analyze in it. -Anna says she never eats candy, but Anna lies. [analyze vs Anna lies]
  10. Charlie! Answer the door! -Hello the door. [answer the door]
  11. Never attack an octopus -They're always well armed. [足 vs. 武力]
  12. The first archery contestant won by an arrow margin. [arrow margin vs. a narrow margin]
  13. When a girl slips on the ice, why can't her brother help her up? Because he can't be a brother and assist her, [assist her vs. a sister]
  14. Miss, I eaten seven sausages for dinner. -Ate, John ate. -It may have been eight, Miss. I know I eaten an awful lot. [ate vs eight]
  15. What do you think of that new diner on the moon? -Food was good, but there really wasn't much atmosphere. [空気 vs. 雰囲気]
  16. What is the definition of attack? -A small nail. [attack vs. a tack]
  17. I've proposed to four different men without avail. Next time try wearing a veil. [avail[əvéil] vs. a veil[véil]]
  18. The most dangerous composer to punch is the one who will hit you Bach. [Bach:hit back[bǽk] やり返す]
  19. "I was sorry to hear that you brother passed on," one old classmate consoled another at a reunion. "Had he finished his education?" -"No," said the other. "He died a bachelor." [bachelor: 独身 vs. 学士]
  20. When the stock market falls, millions lose their balance. [lose one's balance 平衡を失うvs. 残高]
  21. How can you pitch a winning baseball game without even throwing a ball? - Throw only strikes. [投げる vs. 判定のボール」]
  22. Why was Cinderella kicked out of the soccer tea? -Because she kept running away from the ball. [ボール vs. 舞踏会]
  23. Can you stretch the music out a bit longer? -Sorry, madam, this is a dance band, not a rubber band. [音楽バンド vs. ゴムバンド]
  24. What do you think of our village band? -Yes, I think it ought to be. -Ought to be what? -Banned. [楽隊 vs. banned.]
  25. Where do fish keep their savings? -In a river bank. [riverbank 土手]
  26. I'm trying to be a good lawyer. I even built a bar to practice behind. [go to the bar弁護士になる; practice at the bar 弁護士を開業する; behind the bars 刑務所に入る]
  27. An alcoholic musician is someone who can't get past the first bar. [bar; 酒場 vs.1小節]
  28. What's a barbecue? -A row of men waiting to get their hair cut. [barbecue vs barber cue]
  29. What do you use for measuring the noise of a dog makes? -A barking meter. [barking meter vs. parking meter]
  30. Mason, what it the outer part of a tree called? -Don't know, sir. -Bark, boy, bark. -Woof. woof! [bark 樹皮]
  31. What does a bat do in winter? -It splits if you don't oil it. [コウモリ vs. バット]
  32. Why was the chef hired to coach the baseball team? -Because he knew how to handle a batter. [batter生地]
  33. All right, now, we'll make up sentences using the word "bean." -My father grows beans. -My mother cooks beans. -We are all human beans. [beans[bíːnz] vs. beings[bíːiŋz]]
  34. Waiter, what's this? It's bean soup, sir. I don't care what it's been, what is it now?! [bean vs. been]
  35. Maternity clothes: ladies' ready-to bear. [ready-to-wear →ready to bear]
  36. The truth is, children are more difficult to bear after birth than before. [bear: be born vs. endure]
  37. Do you hunt bear? -No, I always wear hunting clothes. [bear[bɛ́ər] vs. bare[bɛ́ər]]
  38. Why is your heart like a policeman -Because it follows a regular beat. [beat 巡回区域]
  39. Our hen can lay an egg four inches long. Can you beat that? -Yes, with a egg beater. [beat 泡立て器]
  40. Why did the busy bee call the flowers lazy? Because they were always in bed. [bed; flower bed 花壇]
  41. Why are rivers lazy? -Because they seldom leave their beds. [riverbed 河床]
  42. Did you follow my directions: Drink water 30 minutes before going to bed? -I tried to, but I was full after drinking for five minutes! [drink water (for) 30 minutes before...]
  43. My wife brings me more bills into the house than a Congressman [bill 法案 vs 請求書; house 下院 vs 家]
  44. Daddy, there was a man here today to see you. -With a bill? -Nope. Just an ordinary nose like yours. [bill =beak クチバシ]
  45. An observing man claims to have discovered the color of the ink. He found it blew. [blew =blue[bluː]
  46. A bee farm was started by a man who liked to keep buzzy. [keep buzzy vs. keep busy]
  47. Hey, man! Please call me a taxi. -Yes, sir. You are a taxi. [=Please call a taxi for me.]
  48. How about my omelet? -Eggcellent! [>Excellent!]
  49. The police are looking for a man with one eye. Typical police efficiency! [with one eye; 片目の vs. 注意を怠らない]
  50. How is your long distance relationship going? -So far, so good. [so far =to a certain extent; very long]
  51. Birth conrol: no kidding. [からかう vs. 子を産む]
  52. I see strengh, courage, kindness and espair in you face. -But how can you see all taht in my face? -I can read between the lines. [lines シワ vs. 行間]
  53. Lion: You're a cheater. Cheetah: You're lion. [ceetah -cheaterペテン師 vs lion - liar うそつき]
  54. Waiter I'm in a hurry. Will my pancake long? -No, sir. It'll be round and flat. []long: 長い vs. 時間がかかる]
  55. A tennis court is the only place in the world where love means nothing. [love: 愛 vs. 零点]
  56. Why are public libraries closed in wartime? For fear that the magazines will blow up [magazine: 雑誌 vs. 火薬庫]
  57. Who can tell where we find mangoes? -I guess everywhere woman goes. [mango vs. man goes]
  58. What is the worst month for soldiers? -A long march. [March vs. march 行進]
  59. Who can marry many a wife and still remain single all of his life? A minister [miniser 牧師; marry と結婚する vs. を結婚させる]
  60. Aging is a matter of mind. If you don't mind, it doesn't matter. [matter: 問題 vs. 重要’; mind; 精神 vs. 心配]
  61. Doctor, I think I'm losing my mind. -Don't worry. You won't miss it. [miss: 失う vs. ...がない→元々理性がなければ失うことはない]
  62. What's the matter with your finger? -I hit the wrong nail. [nail: 釘 vs 爪
  63. Photographer, this picture yiou took of me is awful. Do you call it a good likeness? -The anwere, sir, is in the negative. [negative: 否定 vs. 陰画→ネガの中の被写体が悪い?]
  64. A farmer who only owns cows is a noble man. [noble[nóubl] vs. no bull[nóu búl]]
  65. Give me a sentencewith an object in it. -You're very beautiful, teacher. -Thanks, but what's the object? -A good grade. [object: 目的語 vs. 目的・意図]
  66. Barney, please run across the street and see how old Mrs. Harvey is. -I've alredy gone, and she says it's none of my business how old she is. [old: 老... vs. 何歳 ]
  67. Is your baby a boy or a girl? -Of course, what else could it be? []
  68. (rapping on desk) Order, please! (Sleepy voice from back row) Hamburger with oninos for me. [order please: 静粛に vs. 注文をどうぞ]
  69. How do you like my hair? I spent a long time over it. -Really? I spend a long time under it. [over it: 髪に関して vs. 髪の上の方で;髪の下の方=頭]
  70. Doctor, I think I'm shrinking! -Well, you'll just have to be a little patient. [a little patient; 我慢強い vs. 縮んだ患者]
  71. When two fruit companies merged, they made a perfect pear. [pear vs. pair]
  72. My brother earns a living with his pen. -Is he an author? -No, he raises pigs. [pen: ペン vs. 家畜の檻
  73. What's the difference between a rose and a nose? It is polite to pick a rose. [pick one's nose 鼻をほじる]
  74. What's the quietest game in the world? Bowling - you can hear a pin drop. [pin drop ピンの落ちる音]
  75. Did you get a good place in your exam? -Yes, Dad - net to the radiator. [place: 順番 vs. 場所]
  76. Career woman: a female more iterested in plots nd plans than pots nd pans. [plot & plan 構想・計画 vs. pots & pans 鍋釜炊事道具]
  77. Where do cars go swimming? -In the car pool. [car pool 相乗り方式]
  78. I think golf is a rich man's game. -Nonsense. Look at all the poor players! [poor: 貧乏 vs. 下手]
  79. I lost 20 pounds while I was in England. How much is that in America? [[pound: 0.45kg vs. £]
  80. Xmas: Buy now, pray later. [pray vs. pay]
  81. May I see you pretty soon? -Don't you think I'm pretty now? [pretty: かなり vs. 可愛い]
  82. It's illegal to make liquor privately and to make water publicly. [make water publicly 公に放尿する]
  83. Why is a horse like a baseball game? -They bot get stopped by the rain. [rain vs. rein[réin] 手綱]
  84. Name a product raised in countrties where there's a lot of rain. -Umbrellas. [raise: 育てる vs. 持ち上げる]
  85. If there are two flies in the kitchen, which one is the cowboy? -The one on the range. [range: レンジ vs. 放牧場]
  86. Success is relative. The more success, the more relatives. [relative: 相対的 vs. 親戚]
  87. Doctor: The best time to take this medicine is just before retiring. Patient: You mean I don't have to take it until I'm 65 years old? [retire: 就寝する vs. 退職する]
  88. Some women have a wonderful sense of right and wrong, but little sense of right and left. [right: 善 vs. 右]
  89. If we become engaged, will you give me a ring? -Sure. What's your phone number? [ring: 指輪 vs. 電話]
  90. What ring is never worn? -The ring of a doorbell. [ring: 指輪 vs ベルの音]
  91. How did you like living in an army tent? -I had no room to complain. [room: 部屋 vs. 余地]
  92. Dad! Are you or Mom the boss in this house? -I am. I run things around the house. Mom: That's right. He runs the vacuum cleaner, the dish washer, the lawnmower, the ... [run: 管理する vs. 運転する]
  93. What do you write on a robot's gravestone? -Rust in piece. [Rest in peace.]
  94. "There", she said, standing on her tiptoes, "I'm about your size. -On the contray, said the disconsolate lover, "my sighs are about you." [size サイズ vs. sighs[sáiz] ため息]
  95. The best way to lose weight is skipping - snacks and desserts. [skip 縄跳び vs. 省略する]
  96. Short skirts have a tendency to make men polite. Have you ever seen a man get on a bus ahead of one?
  97. Excuse me, but I saw your thumb in my soup when you were carrying it. -Oh, that's okay. The soup isn't hot.
  98. I think our school's haunted, Mom. -Why's that, son? -The principal is always talking about the school spirit. [spirit: 幽霊 vs. 忠誠心]
  99. When the first bicycle repair shop opened the owner became the industry' spokes-man. [spokes -man]
  100. Where do you bathe? -I bathe in the spring. -I didn't say when - I said where. {spring; 泉 vs. 春
  101. What is a star with a tail called? -Micky Mouse. [star: 星 vs. スター]
  102. The trouble with my car is the engine won't start and the payments won't stop.
  103. I'm the most graceful dancer in this state. -You may be in this state, but you're not when you're sober. [state 州 vs. 状態; soberしらふ]
  104. Marriage is a three-ring circus: engagement ring, wedding ring, suffering.
  105. What is your son taking in colage? -Oh, he's taking all I've got. [take: 科目選択, 持ち去る]
  106. Did you ever hear the story about the peacock? -No -A beautiful tale. [tale vs. tail[téil]]
  107. Have you heard the story about the skyscraper? -It's a tall story. [tall tale ほら話]
  108. How old is Professor Greene? -Pretty old. They say he used to teach Shakespeare. [teach: 人を教える vs. 科目を教える]
  109. Can you telephone from an airplane? -Sure, anyone can tell a phone from an airplane. [tell A from B: 区別する vs. 電話をする]
  110. Where was Solomon's Temple? -On the side of his head. [temple: 神殿 vs. 側頭部]
  111. Does your watch tell the time? -No, You have to look at it. [tell:言う vs. 時刻を報じる]
  112. You're going on a diet? Why? Because I'm thick and tired of it. [thick: 太った v]
  113. What should you always take into the desert? -A thirst-aid kit.
    [thirst[θə́ːrst] aid kit vs. first[fə́ːrst] aid kit]
  114. A bicycle can't stand on its own because it is two-tired. [too tired]
  115. When a man breaks a date, he has to. When a girl coes, she has two. [to[tuː] vs. two[túː] 2つのデート]
  116. Wake up, Mike. It's five to one. -In whose favor? [1時5分前 vs. 5対1]
  117. Why are beautiful women like break? -Because they are always toasted. [A toast to Jane!: 乾杯する vs. トースト]
  118. Absent-minded Judge to Dentist: Do you swear that you pull the tooth, the whole tooth, and nothing but the tooth? [the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth...]
  119. Why did the man enoy his work in the towel factory? -Because it was a very absorbing job. [absorbing job とてもおもしろい仕事]
  120. What flowers make you think of a kiss? -Tulips. [two lips[túː líps]]
  121. Waiter, there's a twig in my soup. -One moment, sir, I'll call the branch manager. [twig 小枝 vs. branch 枝・支店]
  122. Can you tell me the meaning of "unaware"? -"Unaware" is what you put on first and take off last. [unaware vs. underwear]
  123. What makes you so uneasy? -Easy payments. [easy payment 月賦]
  124. To make spots on floors disappear you should vanish them. [vanish vs. varnish[vɑ́ərniʃ] ニスを塗る]
  125. What are your views on kissing? -I haven't any - my girl's hair always gets in my eyes. [view 見方 vs. 視界]
  126. She's Vogue on the outside and vague on the inside. [vague ぼーとしている]
  127. Unfortuately for most people, overeating ends up being a big waist of time. [waist[wéist] ウエスト vs. waste[wéist] 浪費]
  128. Many a girl is looking for an older man with a strong will - made out for her. [will: 意志 vs. 遺言状]
  129. Why is a watch like a river? -because it doen't run without winding. [wind: 巻く vs. 曲がりくねる]
 

>Top 100. 7 Changed Proverbs

105c

Changed Provers (諺の変化)

  1. absence
  2. accident
  3. apple
  4. all
  5. art
  1. Absence makes the heart grow fonder.
    1. →Nonsense makes the heart fonder. [馬鹿げた行動]
  2. Accidents will happen.
    1. Much to his surprise, however, the baby came out with blue, straight eyes, blond hair and light skin.}
      "How could this be? How can the baby be white?" Shrugging, his wife said, "Occidents will happen. [Accidents [ǽksədənt]→Occidents [ɑ́ksədənt]]
  3. All's well that ends well. →All's well that ends. [clipped proverb]
  4. An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
    1. Minneapolis a day keeps many doctors away. [Minneapolis →Many apples]
  5. Art is long, life is short.
    1. Art is long, but artists are usually short. [背が低い]
 
  1. beauty
  2. beauty
  3. bird
  4. birds
  5. bird
  6. blood
  7. book
  8. boy
  9. bread
  10. brevity
  11. bygone
  1. A thing of beauty is a joy for ever.
    1. A thing of beauty is a boy forever.
    2. A thing of duty will annoy forever.
    3. A brainless beauty is a toy forever.
  2. Beauty is only skin-deep. →Beauty is only skin. [clipped proverb]
  3. A bird in a hand is worth two in the bush.
    1. Ecologists believe that a bird in the bush is worth two in the hand.
    2. A ring in the hand is worth two in the voice. [ring 指輪 vs. 音の響き]
  4. kill two birds with one stone.
    1. Doctor, I'm sorry to drag you so far out in the country on such a bad day.
      -Oh, it's all right because I have another patient near here, so I can kill two birds with one stone.
  5. The early bird catches the worm.
    1. Why the worm oversleep? -Because he didn't want to be caught by the early bird.
  6. Blood is thicker than water.
    1. Blood is thicker than water and much more difficult to get out of the carpet. [extended proverb]
  7. You can't judge the book by its cover.
    1. two policemen spot a car driven by a man in a convict's outfit. They pulled him over and made an arrest. At the station, however, the cops discovered that his a distinguished court official on his way to a costume ball. Moral: Never book a judge by his cover. [book 警察の記録, cover 服]
  8. Boys will be boys. →Boys will be noise. [bɔ́iz; nɔ́iz]
  9. Man does not live by bread alone.
    1. I'm a man who can live by bread alone. I can 't ever afford butter.
  10. Brevity is the soul of wit.
    1. Brevity is the soul of lingeries.
    2. Levity is the soul of wit. [levity, lévəti 軽率な行為]
  11. Let bygones be bygones.
    1. Le bygones by bygones. Because if we all took notice of it we wouldn't have to have any more history lessons.
 

  1. cake
  2. cart
  3. chicken
  4. child
  5. children
  6. clothes
  7. cloud
  8. company
  9. company
  10. cook
  11. crime









 

 

  1. You cannot have your cake and eat it.
    1. A young air force cadet managed to get himself engaged to two attractive girls at one and the same time. One was called Edith, and the other was called Kate. Unfortunately fore the cadet, the two girls met, discovered his tow-timing ways, and confronted him, crying "You can 't have your Kate and Edith, too! [cadet [kədét] 士官候補生; Kate [kéit]= cake [kéik]; Edith [íːdiθ] =eat it [íːtit];
  2. Don't put the cart before the horse.
    1. I am therefore I think. Is this putting Descartes before the horse? []Descartes [deikɑ́ərt] =the card [ðəkɑ́ərt]
    2. Drunken driver: The motorist who put the quart before the hearse. [cart[kɑ́ərt], quart[kwɔ́ərt; horse[hɔ́ərs], hearse[hə́rːs]]
  3. Don't count your chickens before they are hatched.
    1. Don't count your checks before they are cashed. [chickens[tʃíknz], checks[tʃéks]]
  4. It is wise child that knows its own father.
    1. It is a wise child that owes it own father. [knows[nóuz], owes[óuz]]
    2. It is a wise father that knows his own child.
  5. Children should be seen and not heard.
    1. Children should be seen and not had. [heard[hə́rːd]; had[hǽd]]
    2. Soup should be seen and not heard.
    3. Drive carefully. Children should be seen and not hurt. [hə́rːt]
  6. Clothes make the man.
    1. Clothes often fake the man. [make[méik]; fake[féik]]
    2. Clothes doesn't make the man.
  7. Every cloud has a silver lining. [銀の裏地がついている; 苦は楽の種]
    1. To a pickpocket, every crowd has a silver lining. [cloud[kláud]; crowd[kráud]]
  8. A man is known by the company he keeps.
    1. Industrialist: one known by the company he keeps. [company: 仲間 vs. 会社]
    2. A man is known by the company he avoids. [keep ⇔ avoid]
  9. Two is company, (but) three is a crow. [三人は仲間割れ]
    1. Two is company, (but) three is the result. [仲の良い男女。三人はその結果]
    2. Two is company, and three is a divorce. [三角関係で離婚]
  10. Too many cooks spoil the broth. [broth[brɔ́ːθ] 肉魚スープ
    1. A textile factory lost a considerable amount of its stock during a recent flood. the reason: too many brooks spoil the cloth. [cooks[kúks]; brooks[brúks]; broth[brɔ́ːθ]; cloth[]klɔ́ːθ]
  11. Crime doesn't pay.
    1. Why did the cleaning woman stop cleaning? -Because she found grime doesn't pay. [crime[kráim]; grime [gráim] 汚れ]
 
  1. do
  2. dog
  3. dog
  1. Do undo others as you would have them do unto you.
    1. Lobby sign in high-rise apartment house: "Do under others as you wold have them do under you." [unto[ʌ́ntu]; under[ʌ́ndər]]
  2. A barking dog never bites.
    1. A barking dog never bites -while barking. [extended proverb]
  3. Every dog has his day.
    1. Every dogma must have its day. [dog[dɔ́ːg]; dogma[dɔ́ːgmə]]
 
  1. ear
  2. eat
  3. egg
  4. exception
  1. Walls have ears.
    1. Why should you never tell secrets in a vegetable garden? -Because the corns have ears. [耳 vs. 穂]
  2. Early to rise and early to bed makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.
    1. Early to rise and early to bed makes a man healthy, wealthy, and dead.
  3. Eat, drink, and be merry, fir tomorrow you may die.
    1. Eat, drunk, and be merry, for tomorrow you diet? [die[dául]; diet[dáiət]]
  4. Don't put all your eggs in one basket.
    1. She was a very confused bride. She found that she had put all her eggs in one biscuit. [basket[bǽskit]; biscuit[bískit]
  5. The exception proves the rule.
    1. Exceptions always outnumber the rules.
 
  1. fair
  2. familiarity
  3. fool
  4. fool
  5. fool
  6. friend
  1. None but the brave deserves the fair.
    1. Why should a taxi driver be a brave man? -Because they say 'only the brave man deserves the fare.' " [fair[féər] 美人; fare[féər]料金]
  2. Familiarity breeds contempt. [軽蔑]
    1. Familiarity breeds. 慣れすぎは子供を産む [clipped proverb]
  3. A fool and his money are soon parted.
    1. A fool and his father's money are soon parted.
    2. A fool and his Monet are soon parted. [バカは絵の価値がわからない]
    3. A horse farm made it a habit to bottle-feed its colts when they were only a few days old.
      [fool[fúːl]; foal[fóul]; money[nʌ́ni]; mummy[mʌ́mi]]
  4. Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.
    1. Fools rush in where bachelors fear to wed. [tread[tréd]; wed[wéd]]
  5. There's no fool like an old fool.
    1. In these days of increasing oil shortages, many home-owners are reverting to using coal, recognizing that there's no fuel like an old fuel. [fool[fúːl]; fuel[fjúːəl]]
  6. A friend in need is a friend indeed.
    1. A friend in need is a friend to feed.
    2. Money: A friend in need, and a need indeed. [in need vs. indeed]
 
  1. glass
  2. glitter
  3. grass
  1. People who live in glass houses shouldn't throw stones. [脛に傷ある人は他人を批判するな]
    1. People who live in stone houses shouldn't throw glasses.
    2. People who live in glass houses shouldn't live within a stone's throw of one another. [すぐ近くに]
  2. All the glitters is not gold.
    1. With a display of left over Christmas n : All that glitters was not sold. [gold[góuld; sold[sóuld]
  3. The good die young.
    1. A joke is proof that the good don't die young,
  4. The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence.
    1. An arctic explorer is a man who believes the snow is whiter on the other side.
 
  1. haste
  2. hay
  3. head
  4. hero
  5. history
  6. home
  7. home
  8. honesty
  9. horse
  10. horse
  11. human
  1. More haste, less speed.
    1. The more waist, the less speed. [<OE. spowan =prosper, succeed]
  2. Make hay while the sun shines.
    1. What does your son do? -He's a bootblack in the city,
      -Oh, I see, you make hay while the son shines. [son[sʌ́n] vs. sun[sʌ́n]; shine 輝く; 磨く]
  3. Two heads are better than one.
    1. Why did the dumb parents name both of their sons Ed?
      -Because they heard that two Eds are better than one. [heads[héds]; Eds[édz]; cockney訛りではheadのhは脱落して[ed]になる。]
  4. No man is a hero to his valet. [近くで見ればただの人; valet 召使い]
    1. No man is a her to his wallet. [valet[vǽlit] vs wallet[wálit]] 財布が満足するほどの英雄はいない
  5. History repeats itself.
    1. History does not repeat itself; historians repeat each other. [歴史家が多大の説を繰り返す]
  6. (Be it ever so humble,) there is no place like home.
    1. Song of the hive: "Be is ever so humble, there is no place like comb." [home[hóum] vs. comb[kóum]]
    2. There is no police like Holmes. [place[pléis] vs police[pəlíːs]]
  7. Home is where the heart is.
    1. Home is where the hearth is. [heart [hɑ́ərt]vs. hearth[hɑ́əθ] 暖炉]
  8. Honesty is the best policy.
    1. Honesty is the best policy, but not the best politics. [policy[pɑ́ləsi] vs. politics[pɑ́lətiks] ]
  9. Don't change horses in mid-stream.
    1. One of the first things you learn from the baby is that you should never change nappies in mid-steam.
  10. You can lead a horse to the water, but you cannot make him drink.
    1. You can lead a young person to college, but you can't make him think. [drink[dríŋk] vs. think[θíŋk]]
  11. To err is human (,to forgive divine).
    1. To err is humor. [humor[hjúːmər] vs. human[hjúːmən]
 
  1. ignorance
  2. iron
  3. late
  4. laugh
  5. learning
  6. laugh
  7. little
  8. loaf
  9. look
  10. love
  11. love
  12. love
  13. love
  1. Ignorance is bliss.
    1. When it comes to getting a suntan, ignorance is blister. [bliss[blís] vs. blister[blístər] 火膨れ]
    2. Where ignorance is bliss, 'tis folly to be wise. [思慮あることは愚かなること]
    3. Where ignorance is bliss, it it folly to take an intelligence test.
  2. Strike while the iron is hot.
    1. 500 men walked out of a steel mill while it was still in operation. The union spokesman said they had to strike while the iron was hot. [strike =walk outストを打つ]
  3. Better late than never.
    1. Proud of their eggs, farmers have been known to boast "Better laid than ever!" [late[léit] vs. laid[léid]; never[névər] vs. ever[évər]]
  4. He laughs best who laughs last.
    1. He who laughs, lasts - if the boss is telling the joke. [上司の冗談は笑わないと]
  5. A little learning is a dangerous thing.
    1. A little woman is a dangerous thing. [little 少し→小さくて可愛い]
  6. Where this is life, there is hope.
    1. Where there's life insurance, there is hope. [extended proverb]
  7. Every little helps. [塵も積もれば]
    1. When I die, I'm going to leave my brain for science. -Well, every little helps.
  8. Half a loaf is better than none.
    1. A woman who married to a chap who loafs half the time has decided not to divorce him because half a loafer is better than none. [loaf[lóuf] 一塊のパン vs. loafer[lóufər]怠け者]
  9. Look before you leap:
    1. The control tower at a airport radioed to a pilot that he had a hole in the bottom of his fuel tank and that he was to fly upside down to prevent it from spilling. "Hurry up! the message warned. "Loop before you leak."
      [look[lúk] vs loop[lúːp]; leap[líːp] vs leak[líːk]]
  10. Love is blind.
    1. The ring is nice," she said hesitantly, "but it's small, darling." "So what?" he tried to overcome it. "After all, we are in love and you know the old saying - 'Love is blind.'" "Yes, but not stone-blind."
      [stone=blind 全盲の vs. 石を見る目がない]
    2. Love is blind. Marriage is an eye-opener.
  11. Love me, love my dog.
    1. Love me, love my doggerel. [doggerel [dɔ́ːgərəl 音律不整で滑稽な、下手な]
  12. The course of true love never did run smooth.
    1. The course of two loves never does run smooth. [true[trúː] vs. two[túː]]
  13. Tis better to have loved and lost, than never to have loved at all.
    1. It's better to have loved a short girl than never to have loved at all. [at tall[ət ɔ́ːl] vs. a tall[ə tɔ́ːl]]
 
  1. marry
  2. man
  3. man
  4. milk
  5. money
  6. money
  7. money
  8. money
  1. Marry in haste and repent at leisure.
    1. Modern version: Marry in haste, repeat at pleasure. [随意に反復; repent[ripént] vs repeat[ripíːt]; leisure[léʒər] vs. pleasure[pléʒər]]
  2. One man's meat is another man's poison. [甲の薬は乙の毒]
    1. Evolution: One man's meat is another man's croquette. [客の残肉をコロッケに入れる]
    2. One woman's poise is another woman's poison. [poise[pɔ́iz] 身のこなし vs. poison[pɔ́izn]] お上品振って
  3. All men are created equal.
    1. All men are cremated equal. [create{} vs. cremate[kriːméit]
    2. American symbol of democracy: "All men are created eagle." [eagle[íːgl] vs. equal[íːkwəl]]
  4. It is no use crying over spilt milk.
    1. A cat its an animal that never cries over spilt milk.
  5. Money talks.
    1. Inflation is so bad these days that money doesn't really talk, it just goes without saying. [it just goes without saying ...は言うまでもない]
    2. Money talks ... but just to say good-bye. [extended proverb]
  6. (The love of ) money is the root of all evil.
    1. The love of evil is the root of all money.
  7. Money makes he mare (to) go.
    1. Money makes the mayor go. [mare[méər] vs. mayor[méiər]
  8. Money doest not grow on trees.
    1. The reason money doesn't grow on trees is that banks own all the branches. [branch; 枝 vs. 支店]
 
  1. necessity
  2. news
  1. Necessity is the mother of invention.
    1. Speaking of inventions - did you know that most inventors created their products for homemakers with children?
      - Yes. You might say Mother is the necessity of invention. [necessity とmotherの位置転換]
    2. Necessity is the mother of convention. [invention[invénʃən] vs. convention[kənvénʃən] 必要があって慣習]
    3. Obesity is the mother of invention. [necessity[nesésəti] vs obesity[oubíːsəti 車は肥満者用?]
  2. No news is good news.
    1. No nukes is good nukes.
    2. Murderer: No noose is good noose. [news[njúːz] vs. noose[núːs]絞首刑の縄]
 
  1. omelet
  2. omelet
  3. opportunity
  1. You cannot make an omelet without breaking eggs.
  2. I wouldn't say my wife is a bad cook - but she's the only woman I know who can make an omelet without breaking eggs. [冷凍食品?]
  3. Opportunity never knocks twice
    1. When opportunity knocks at the door, most people are out in the backyard looking for four-leaf clovers.
    2. Opportuity knocks only once but temptation bangs on the door for years.
    3. Knock, knock. -Who's there? -Opportunity -Don't be silly. Opportunity only knocks once.
 
  1. pearl
  2. pen
  3. port
  4. practice
  5. pudding
  1. Do not cast pearls before swine.
    1. "So you are the new girl," said the young smart aleck to the new waitress in his hotel. What shall we call you? -Pearl, sir. -A Pearl of Great Price? -No, sir, a Pearl cast before swine. [smart alec(k)[ǽlik 自惚れ屋] 主人=豚]
  2. The pen is mightier than the sword.
    1. Capital punishment is the belief that sword is mightier than the pen. [pen 刑務所]
    2. The pension is mightier than the sword. [pen[pén] vs. pension[pénʃən]]
    3. The pun is mightier than the sword. [pen vs pun[pʌ́n]洒落]
  3. Any port in a storm.
    1. Despite a violent downpour, the speaker managed to arrive at a banquet only
    2. an hour or so late. He was promptly served a glass of extremely bad wine. Downing it with a great distaste, he sighed and muttered, "Oh, well, any port in a storm! [port vs. port(wine)]
  4. Practice makes perfect.
    1. Teacher: Johnny, how can you be such a perfect idiot? -I practice a lot.
    2. In music, practice makes perfect - nuisances. [a perfect nuisance まったく厄介者]
  5. The proof of the pudding is in the eating.
    1. The reproof of the pudding is in the repeating. [proof[prúːf] vs. reproof[ripúːf]; repeat (ゲップで)後味が口に残る
 
  1. quarrel
  1. It takes two to make a quarrel.
    1. It takes two to make a quarrel - and the same number to get married.
    2. It takes two to make a quarrel. -No, mother, you need four to play bridge.
    3. It takes two to make a quarrel.
    4. And three to make it interesting. [仲裁で余計話しがこじれて面白くなる]
 
  1. rain
  2. Rome
  3. Rome
  1. It never rains but it pours.
    1. After being subjected to numerous speeches of welcome, Prince Philip is alleged to have remarked, "It never wanes but it bores. [rains[réinz] vs. wanes[wéinz]; pours[pɔ́ərz] vs. bores[bɔ́əz]
  2. All roads lead to Rome.
    1. To a romantic girl, all roads lead to Romeo. [Rome[róum] vs. Romeo[róuiou]
    2. Gypsy: a person who believes that all roads lead to roam. [Rome[róum] vs. roam[róum]放浪]
  3. Rome was not built in a day.
    1. Sam, when was Rome built? -It was built during the night. -The night! Where did you ever get such an idea? -Well, everyone knows that Rome wasn't built in a day. [day; 一日 vs. 昼間]
    2. Rome wasn't built in a day, because it was a government job. [公共事業は遅れる]
 
  1. sight
  2. silence
  3. soldier
  4. stone
  5. succeed
  6. swallow
  1. Out of sight, out of mind.
    1. There is a story of the computer that was ordered to translate a common English phrase into Russian and then translate it back into English. -What went in was "Out of sight, out of mind." What came out was "invisible insanity. [out of mind 日々に疎し vs. 気が狂って(out of one's mind)]
  2. Silence is golden.
    1. Silence is golden, especially the silence of some punsters. [punsters ダジャレ好き]
  3. Old soldiers never die; they just fade away.
    1. Old soldiers never die; just young ones.
  4. A rolling stone gathers no moss.
    1. A bachelor is a rolling stone that has gathered no boss. [moss[mɔ́ːs] vs. boss[bɔ́ːs] =wife]
  5. If at first you don't succeed, try, try, try again.
    1. If at first you don't succeed, cry, cry again. [try[trái] vs. cry[krái]]
    2. If at first you don't succeed - you're fired.
    3. If at first you don't succeed - so much for skydiving. [so much for.. ..は打ち切り]
  6. One swallow does not make a summer.
    1. One swallow doesn't make a summer, but it breaks a New Year's resolution. [swallow; 燕 vs. 一飲み]
 
  1. time
  2. time
  3. tomorrow
  4. truth
  5. turn
  1. Time flies.
    1. Why did the boy throw his alarm clock out of the windows? -He wanted to see if time flies.
  2. Time is money.
    1. Time is money, especially overtime.
  3. Never put off until tomorrow what you can do today.
    1. Never do today when you can put off until tomorrow.
  4. Truth is stranger than fiction.
    1. Electric toothbrush: his worries were unfounded when he discovered that the tooth is stronger than friction. [truth[trúːθ] vs. tooth[túːθ]; fiction[fíkʃən] vs. friction[fríkʃən]
  5. One good turn deserve another.
    1. In 1936 President Franklin D. Roosevelt was reelected because one good term deserves another. [turn[tə́ːrn] 行為 vs. term[tə́ːrm] 任期]
 
  1. variety
  1. Variety is the spice of life.
    1. Variety is the life of spies. [spice[spáis] vs. spies[spáiz]
 
  1. will
  1. Where there's a will, there's a way.
    1. Where there's a bill, we're away. [will[wíl] vs. bill[bíl]; a way vs. away]
    2. Teacher: Why was Shakespeare such a determined writer? -Because where there's a Will, there's a way, miss. [Will =Williamの愛称]
    3. Where there is a will, there is a way if there is the money. [extended proverb]
 
 

>Top 100.8 The Devil 's Dictionary:

The Devil 's Dictionary (悪魔の辞典)

1881-1906 written for a weekly paper by Ambrose Bierce

; Abstemious; Abstrainer; Accentuate; Acerbity; Allay; Allegiance; Antedate; Appertain; Apprehension; Art; Blackguard; Blush; Boast; Breavement; Casuist; Clueless; Consecrate; Convent; Cramp; Damnation; Deglutition; Deliverance; Desolate; Despotism; Destitute; Destitution; Disciple; Disguise; Dispot; Distemper; Distinction; Downy; Dunce; Dyspepsia; Edify; Efface; Enamor; Expediency; Fleeting; Formidable; Foul; Futile; Goodly; Ignoble; Impel; Incivism; Inference; Infallible; Ingenious; Inveracity; Mediocrity; Mischance; Mortify; Offhand; Overhear; Overtake; Palatable; Parallel; Perdition; Perilous; Plunder; Privation; Providence; Ravel; Remorse; Repaste; Revile; Rudimentary; Scabbard; Servility; Slay; Stench; Sycophant; Temporal; Titter; Trespass; Undertaker; Unwarranted; Vale; Vilify; Whack; Wholesome; Wield:

  1. Ability 能力 nénglì
  2. Abnormal 変則の;
    异常yìcháng
  3. Absolute 絶対の;
    绝对juéduì
  4. >devil
    Abstainer
    節制家;
    吝啬lìnsè
    deny oneself 自制
  5. Absurdity 不条理・不合理;
    无理wúlǐ
  6. Accuse
    責める;
    指责zhǐzé
  7. Achievement 達成;
    成就chéngjiù
  8. Acquaintance 知己;
    知己zhījǐ
  9. Admiration賞賛;
    称赞chēngzàn
  10. >devil Age 老齢;
    高龄gāolíng
    revile 罵倒する
  11. >devil Air 空気;
    空气kōngqì
    bountiful 寛大な;
    Providence
  12. >devil Alli
    ance 同盟;
    结盟jiéméng
    plunder 略奪する
  13. >devil
    Altar 祭壇;
    圣餐台shèngcāntái
    ravel ほぐす
  14. Ambidextrous 両手きき左右开弓zuǒyòu kāigōng
  15. >devil Ambition 野心;
    志向zhiìxiàng
    overmaster 圧倒する
    vilify 中傷する
  16. Apologize 謝罪;
    道歉dàoqiàn
  17. >devil Aristocracy
    貴族政治;
    贵族guìzú
    downy 綿毛で覆われた
  1. The natural equipment to accomplish some small part of the meaner ambitions distinguishing able men from dead ones. In the last analysis ability is commonly found to consist mainly in a high degree of solemnity.
  2. Not conforming to standard. In matters of thought and conduct, to be independent is to be abnormal, to be abnormal is to be detested.
  3. Independent, irresponsible. An absolute monarchy is one in which the sovereign does as he pleases so long as he pleases the assassins. Not many absolute monarchies are left, most of them having been replaced by limited monarchies, where the sovereign's power for evil (and for good) is greatly curtailed, and by republics, which are governed by chance.
  4. A weak person who yields to the temptation of denying himself a pleasure. A total abstainer is one who abstains from everything but abstention, and especially from inactivity in the affairs of others.
  5. A statement or belief manifestly inconsistent with one's own opinion.
  6. To affirm another's guilt or unworthy; most commonly as a justification of ourselves for having wronged him.
  7. The death of endeavor and the birth of disgust.
  8. A person whom we know well enough to borrow from, but not well enough to lend to. A degree of friendship called slight when its object is poor or obscure, and intimate when he is rich or famous.
  9. Our polite recognition of another's resemblance to ourselves.
  10. That period of life in which we compound for the vices that we still cherish by reviling those that we have no longer the enterprise to commit.
  11. A nutritious substance supplied by a bountiful Providence for the fattening of the poor.
  12. In international politics, the union of two thieves who have their hands so deeply inserted in each other's pockets that they cannot separately plunder a third.
  13. The place whereupon the priest formerly raveled out the small intestine of the sacrificial victim for purposes of divination and cooked its flesh for the gods. The word is now seldom used, except with reference to the sacrifice of their liberty and peace by a male and a female fool.
  14. Able to pick with equal skill a right-hand pocket or a left.
  15. An overmastering desire to be vilified by enemies while living and made ridiculous by friends when dead.
  16. To lay the foundation for a future offence.
  17. Government by the best men. (In this sense the word is obsolete) Fellows that wear downy hats and clean shirts - guilty of education and suspected of bank accounts.
  1. 卑しい野心の一部を達成する自然に備わったもので、有能と無能とを区分するもの。よく分析すると能力は高度の真面目さに依るものであることが通常である。
  2. 基準に従わないこと。思想や行為に関しては、自主的であろうとすると変速となり、変速となると忌み嫌われる。
  3. 独立心の強い、無責任な。絶対王政とは、主権者が、暗殺者の機嫌を取り続ける限り思いのままできる政体をいう。今日多くの絶対王政はなく、主権者の権利(の善悪)が大きく制限された立憲君主制か、または、偶然によって政治をとる共和制にとって代わられた。
  4. 快楽に対し自身の欲望を抑えようとする誘惑に勝てない弱い人。完全な節制家とは、自制すること以外のすべてを控える人で、特に他人のことに関して消極的な人。
  5. 自分自身の意見と明確に異なる言説または信念
  6. 他人を罪ありまたは無価値と断言すること。通常はその者を不当に扱ったことに対する自身を正当化すること。
  7. 努力の死および嫌悪の誕生
  8. 金は借りる程度には知っているが、金は貸さないような間柄の人。友情の程度については、相手が貧乏や無名の場合は顔見知り、金持ちや有名人の場合は親密となる。
  9. 他人が自分自身に似ていることを礼儀正しく認めること。
  10. すでにやり遂げる冒険心がなくなっていることを罵倒することによって、まだ心に抱いている悪徳と折り合おうとする人生の期間。
  11. 気前のよい神様が貧乏人を太らせてやろうと供給する滋養分のある物質
  12. 国際政治において、二人の盗人が互いに相手のポケットに自分の手を深く差し込んでいるので、単独では第三者の物を盗むことができないような同盟関係
  13. 聖職者がその昔、生贄の小腸を解きほぐして神々のためにその肉を料理するのに用いた場所。今では稀語となっているが、男女を問わず愚か者によって自由と平和を犠牲する場合に使われる。
  14. 人の左右のポケットから同様に巧みに盗み取ることができることをいう。
  15. 生きている間は敵から中傷され、死後は味方から物笑いにされる圧倒的な欲望
  16. 将来犯す罪に対して基礎を置くこと
  17. 第一級の人々による政治 (この意味では廃語) 柔らかな毛の帽子と清潔なシャツを着て、犯罪的な教育と、銀行預金を持っているらしい連中。
 
  1. Bacchus バッカス;
    巴克斯bākèsī
  2. >devil
    Bait 餌; 饵ěr
    preparation 料理
    palatable おいしい
  3. Barrack 兵営;
    营房yíngfáng
  4. Battle 戦闘;
    战斗zhàndòu
  5. Beauty 美貌;
    美měi
  6. Blackguard 悪党;
    丑类chǒulèi
  7. Bore 退屈;
    无聊wúliáo
  8. Boundary 国境;
    国境guójìng
  9. Brain 頭脳;
    脑nǎo
  1. A convenient deity invented by the ancients as an excuse for getting drunk.
  2. A preparation that renders the hook more palatable. The best kind is beauty.
  3. A house in which soldiers enjoy a portion of that of which it is their business to deprive others.
  4. A method of untying with the teeth of a political knot that would not yield to the tongue.
  5. The power by which a woman charms a lover and terrifies a husband.
  6. A man whose qualities, prepared for display like a box of berries in a market - the fine ones on top - have been opened on the wrong side. An inverted gentleman.
  7. A person who talks when you wish him to listen.
  8. In political geography, an imaginary line between two nations, separating the imaginary rights of one from the imaginary rights of the other.
  9. An apparatus with which we think what we think. That which distinguishes the man who is content to be something from the man who wishes to do something.
  1. 古代人が、酔っ払う口実として、便宜上作り出した神
  2. 釣り針の味をよりおいしくするための料理。その最上のものが美貌。
  3. 兵隊たちがその役割の一部として他人から奪取して享受する建物
  4. 舌ではほどけない政治的な結び目を歯によって解く方法
  5. 女性がそれによって情人を魅了し、亭主の心胆を寒からしめる力
  6. 人の素質を、反対側から開けてしまった男。裏返しにした紳士。市場のイチゴの箱のように上等なものが上に並べられている。
  7. こちらの話を聞いてもらいたい時に勝手に話をする人
  8. 政治地理学で、二国の間に引かれた想像上の線で、一方の想像上の権利と他方の想像上の権利とを分かつ。
  9. 我々がそれを用いて思考すると考えている装置。何かであることに満足している人と何かをしたいと願っている人を区別するもの
 
  1. Calamity
    災難; 灾难zāinàn
  2. Cannon 大砲;
    大炮dàpào
  3. >devil
    Capital 首都;
    首都shǒudū
    repast 一回の食事
  4. Cat 猫; 猫māo
  5. >devil
    Childhood 子供時代; 童年tóngnián
    remorse 後悔
  6. Circusサーカス;
    马戏mǎxì; act the fool 道化役する
  7. >devil
    Clargyman
    牧師; 牧师mùshi
    temporal 俗事
  8. >devil
    Clock 時計; 钟zhōng; allay 静める
  9. Confort 安心;
    放心fàngxīn
    contemplate 凝視
  10. >devil Commerce 商業;
    商贸shāngmào
    plunder 略奪する
  11. Compromise 妥協;
    妥协tuǒxié
  12. >devil
    Condole 弔慰;
    慰唁wéiyàn
    breavement
    近親者死別
  13. Connoisseur 鑑定家; 鉴赏家jiànshǎng jiā
  14. >devil
    Conservative
    保守主義者;
    保守bǎoshǒu
    enamor 魅惑
  15. Consolation 慰め;
    安慰ānwèi
  16. Consult 相談;
    咨询zīxún
  17. >devil
    Contempt 軽蔑;
    蔑视mièshì;
    formidable手強い
  18. >devil
    Cónvent 修道院;
    女修道院nǚ xiūdàoyuàn
  19. Conversation
    会話; 谈话tánhuà
    intent upon 熱心
  20. >devil Corporation 会社;
    公司gōngsī;
    ingenious
    巧妙
  21. >devil
    Coward 臆病者;
    胆小鬼dǎnxiǎoguǐ
    perilous 危険な
  22. >devil
    Critic 批評家;
    评论家pínglùnjiā
    boast 自慢する
  23. Cunning 狡猾;
    狡猾jiǎohuá
  24. Curiosity 好奇心;
    好奇hàoqí
  25. >devil
    Cynic 冷笑家;
    冷笑lěngxiào;
    blackguard 卑しい人; faulty 欠点ある
  1. A more than commonly plain and unmistakable reminder that the affairs of this life are not of our own ordering. Calamities are of two kinds: misfortune to ourselves, and good fortune to others.
  2. An instrument employed in the rectification of national boundaries.
  3. The seat of misgovernment. That which provides the fire, the pot, the dinner, the table and the knife and fork for the anarchist; the part of the repast that himself supplies is the disgrace before meat.
  4. A soft, indestructible automation provided by nature to be kicked when things go wrong in the domestic circle.
  5. The period of human life intermediated between the idiocy of infancy and the folly of youth - to removes from the sin of manhood and three from the remorse of age.
  6. A place where horses, ponies and elephants are permitted to see men, women and children acting the fool.
  7. A man who undertakes the management of our spiritual affairs as a method of bettering his temporal ones.
  8. A machine of great moral value to man, allaying his concern for the future by reminding him what a lot of time remains to him.
  9. A state of mind produced by contemplation of a neighbor's uneasiness.
  10. A kind of transaction in which A plunders from B the goods of C, and for compensation B picks the pocket of D of money belonging to E.
  11. Such an adjustment of conflicting interests as gives each adversary the satisfaction thinking he has got what he ought not to have, and is deprived of nothing except what was justly his due.
  12. To show that bereavement is a smaller evil than sympathy.
  13. A specialist who knows everything about something and nothing about anything else.
  14. A statesman who is enamored of existing evils, as distinguished from the Liberal, who wishes to replace them with others.
  15. The knowledge that a better man is more unfortunate than yourself.
  16. To seek another's disapproval of a course already decided on.
  17. The feeling of a prudent man for an enemy who is too formidable safely to be opposed.
  18. A place of retirement for woman who wish for leisure to meditate upon the vice of idleness.
  19. A fair for the display of the minor mental commodities, each exhibitor being too intent upon the arrangement of his own wares to observe those of his neighbor.
  20. An ingenious device for obtaining individual profit without individual responsibility.
  21. One who in a perilous emergency thinks with his legs.
  22. A person who boasts himself hard to please because nobody tries to please him.
  23. The faculty that distinguishes a weak animal or person from a strong one. It brings its possessor much mental satisfaction and great material adversity. An Italian proverb says: "The furrier gets the skins of more foxes than asses."
  24. An objectionable quality of the female mind. The desire to know whether or not a woman is cured with curiosity is one of the most active an insatiable passions of the masculine soul.
  25. A blackguard whose faulty vision sees things as they are, not as they ought to be.
  1. この世の中は、我々の定める所ではないということを明瞭から間違えなく教えてくれるもの。災難には自身にとっての不幸と他人にとっての幸運との二種類がある。
  2. 国境を修正する際に用いる道具
  3. 悪政の府。無政府主義者のために、火、鍋、食べ物、テーブル、ナイフとフォークを用意してくれるもの。その食事の度に彼自身が提供するのは食前の屈辱である。
  4. 家庭内で事がうまくいかない時に蹴飛ばすために自然が用意した柔らかくて壊れない自動人形。
  5. 人間の生涯で、白痴のような幼児時代と愚行の青年時代の中間。罪多き壮年時代から二段階、悔い多き老年時代から三段階隔たった時代
  6. 馬や子馬や象が老若男女が道化役を演ずるのを許されている場所
  7. 自身の世俗的生活を向上する手段として我々の信仰生活を管理することを請け負う男
  8. 人間にとって非常に道徳的価値のある機械で、自分にいかに多くの時間が残っているかを示すことで未来に関する不安を和らげてくれる。
  9. 隣人の不安を凝視することで生じる心の状態
  10. AがBからCの商品を略奪し、その埋め合わせにBはDのポケットからE所有の金をかすめとるという取引の一種
  11. 相反する利害関係を調整することで、これは敵対する各々が、元来自分のものとすべきではないものを得たと考える一方で、当然自分のものであったものを除けば、何も奪われていないと考えるような満足感を得るように調整すること。
  12. 同情に比べれば、近親者の死別は小さな災いに過ぎないと示すこと。
  13. あることについてはすべてを知っているが、その他のことについて何も知らない専門家。
  14. 既存の弊害をに魅せられている政治家をいる。これに対し、新たな弊害をもって変えたいと願うのが自由主義者である。
  15. 自分より優れた人が、実は自分より不幸せでいると知ること。
  16. すでに決意したことに関して、改めて他人の不同意を求めること
  17. 下手に反対しようものなら手強い相手に対し、慎重な人間が抱く感情
  18. 怠惰という悪徳を思い巡らす閑暇を得たいと願う女性が引き籠もる場所
  19. 二流の頭脳の中身を陳列する展示会で、各展示者は、自身の商品を陳列するのに熱心のあまり、隣人の陳列を眺める余裕がない。
  20. 個々の人が、個人の責任を伴わないで個人的な利益を得るような巧妙な仕掛け
  21. 危険に非常事態では、脚でもって考えようとする人
  22. 誰も自分の機嫌を取ろうとしないので、自分は気難しいのだと自負している人
  23. 獣にせよ人間にせよ、弱い奴と強い奴を区別する能力。この能力は大いに精神的な満足をもたら一方、 多大な物質的不幸をもたらす。イタリアの諺に "毛皮承認は驢馬よりも狐の毛皮の方を余計に手に入れる"
  24. 女性の心特有の気にさわる性質。果たして女性が好奇心という忌むべき性質を持って生まれかを知りたいという欲望は、男性の魂の持つ最も活発で飽くなき情熱の一つである。
  25. たちの悪い人で、その視力が不完全であるので物事をあるべきようにではなくあるがままに見ようとする。
 
  1. >devil
    Dance ダンス;
    跳舞tiàowǔ;
    titter 忍び笑い
  2. Daring 大胆不敵;
    竟敢jìnggǎn
  3. >devil
    Dawn 夜明け;
    黎明límíng; mortify 苦行を与える
  4. >devil Day 日
    misspend 浪費する consecrate 奉献する
  5. Dead 死; 死sǐ
    done with を終える
  6. >devil
    Debauchee [debɔːtʃíː] 放蕩者;
    败子bàizǐ;
    overtake 追いつく
  7. >devil
    Debt 借金;
    欠款qiànkuǎn
    ingenious 巧妙な
  8. Deliberation 熟慮
  9. >devil
    Delusion 妄想;
    细想xíxiǎng
    goodly 良質の
  10. Destiny 運命;
    命运mìngyùn
  11. Diagnosis 診断;
    诊断zhěnduàn
  12. >devil
    Diary 日記; 日记rìjì
    blush 赤面する
  13. >devil
    Dictionary 辞書;
    词典cidiǎn
    malevolent 悪意のある
    cramping
    妨げる
    inelastic 非弾力的
  14. Diplomacy 外交;
    外交wàijiāo
  15. Discussion 討論;
    讨论tǎolùn
  16. Distance 隔たり;
    距离jùlí
  17. Distress 苦痛;
    痛苦tòngkǔ
  18. >devil
    Duty 義務;
    责任zérèn
    impel 駆り立てる
  1. To leap about to the sound of tittering music, preferably with arms about your neighbor's wife or daughter. there are many kinds of dances, but all those requiring the participation of the two sexes have two characteristics in common: they are conspicuously innocent, and warmly loved by the vicious.
  2. One of the most conspicuous qualities of a man in security.
  3. The time when men of reason go to bed. Certain old men prefer to rise at about that time, taking a cold bath and a long walk with an empty stomach, and otherwise mortifying the flesh. They then point with pride to these practices as the cause of their sturdy health and ripe year; the truth being that they are hearty and old, not because of their habits, but in spite of them. The reason we find only robust persons doing this thing is that it had killed all the others who have tried it.
  4. A period of 24 hours, mostly misspent. This period is divided into two parts, the day proper and the the night, or day improper - the former devoted to sins of business, the latter consecrated to the other sort. These two kinds of social activity overlap.
  5. Done with the work of breathing; done with all the world; the mad race run through to the end; the golden goal attained and found to be a hole!
  6. One who has so earnestly pursued pleasure that he has had the misfortune to overtake it.
  7. An ingenious substitute for the chain and whip of the slave-driver.
  8. The act of examining one's bread to determine which side it is buttered on.
  9. The father of a most respectable family, comprising Enthusiasm, Affection, Self-denial, Faith, Hope, Charity and many other goodly sons and daughters.
  10. A tyrant's authority for crime and fool's excuse for failure.
  11. A physician's forecast of the disease by the patient's pulse and purse.
  12. A daily record of that part of one's life, which he can relate to himself without blushing.
  13. A malevolent literary device for cramping the growth of a language and making it hard and inelastic. This dictionary, however, is a most useful work.
  14. The patriotic art of lying for one 's country.
  15. A method of confirming others in their errors.
  16. The only thing that the rich are willing for the poor to call theirs, and keep.
  17. A disease incurred by exposure to the prosperity of a friend.
  18. That which sternly impels us in the direction of profit, along the line of desire.
  1. 忍び笑いする音楽の音に合わせて、出来得れば隣の細君なり娘さんの腰に腕を回して飛び跳ねる。ダンスにはいろいろな種類があるが、中で男女の参加を必要とするものはすべて、著しく天真爛漫であると共に悪徳のやからが心から愛好するという二つの特質を持っている。
  2. 安全無事な立場にある人に見られる最も著しい性質。
  3. 思慮ある人が床につく時間。ある種の老人たちは好んでその時刻に起きて、空の胃のまま冷水浴をしたりして肉体に苦行を与える。彼らは自慢顔でいうには、歳をとってもこのように丈夫でいられるのは、これらを実行しているからだという。だが事実は、彼らが年老いてもなおかくしゃくとしていられるのはそのような習慣のせいではなく、むしろそうした習慣があるにもかかわらずなのである。つまりこれらを実行しているのは、ただ頑強なひとに限られるという理由は、他の人も同じ試みをしたもののかえって命を縮めることになったというだけの話である。
  4. 24時間からなる期間で、ほとんど浪費で終わるのが常である。この期間は二つに分けられる。日中と夜中である。日中は実務の様々な罪多きことに使われ、夜中は別の種類の罪に捧げられる。これらの二種類の社会活動は一部は重複している。
  5. 呼吸作用を終えること; すべて世界との関わりを終えること; 狂気のレースを最後まで駆け抜けること; 黄金の目標は達成したが穴があることが判明したこと
  6. 快楽を熱心に追い駆けて、不幸にもそれに追いついてしまった人をいう。
  7. 奴隷を監督者が用いる鎖と鞭の代わりとなる巧妙に工夫された代用品
  8. 自分のパンのどちらがわにバターが塗っているかを点検する行為
  9. 極めて尊敬すべき一家の父親で、熱狂、愛情、克己心、信仰、希望、慈善、その他多くの立派な息子と娘を擁する立派な一家の父親。
  10. 暴君が悪事を行う時の典拠、さらに愚者が失敗したときに持ち出す口実。
  11. 医者が、患者の脈拍および財布の中身いかんによって病気に対して行う予測。
  12. 自分の正確の部分で、顔を赤らめることなく自身に関係することの日々の記録。
  13. 言語の成長を妨げて硬直で弾力性のないものにする文筆関係の悪意に満ちたデバイス。但し、本辞書は極めて有益である。
  14. 祖国のために偽りを言う愛国的な芸術
  15. 他人の思い違いを確認する方法
  16. 金持ちとして喜ぶ唯一のことは、貧乏人が自身をそう呼びそのまま保ち続けること。
  17. 友人の繁栄が露呈したことによって生じる病気
  18. 欲望の線に沿って利益の方向へ我々を厳しく駆り立てるもの
 
  1. >devil
    Eat 食べる; 吃chī
    masticate 咀嚼
    humectant
    湿潤
    deglutition 嚥下
  2. >devil
    Eavesdrop [iːvz] 盗み聞く; 偷听tōutīng
    overhearふと耳にする
  3. >devilEccentricity 奇行;
    怪癖guàipǐ;
    accentuate 強調
  4. Economy 経済;
    经济jīngjì
  5. >devil
    Edible 食用になる;
    可食用的kě shíyòng
    ;wholesome 健康増進
  6. >devil
    Editor 編集者;
    主编zhǔbiān
    whack 激しく打つ
  7. >devil
    Education 教育;
    教育jiàoyù
    ; disguise 変装
  8. Effect 結果:
    结果jiéguǒ
  9. Eloquence 雄弁:
    雄辩xióngbiàn
  10. >devilEmancipation 解放
    bondman 奴隷・農奴 despotism 専制
  11. >devilEnthusiasm 熱狂;
    热情rèqíng
    distemper 病気
  12. >devil
    Envelope 封筒;
    信封xìnfēng
    scabbard
  13. Epaulet 肩章;
    肩章jiānzhāng
  14. >devil
    Epicure 快楽主義者
    美食家měishíjiā
    Epicurus エピクロス学の祖; 精神的快楽を重視; abstemious 禁欲的・質素な
  15. >devil
    Epigram 警句; 警句jǐngjù;
    acerbity 渋み
  16. Epitaph [épitæf] 墓銘碑; 墓志铭mùzhìmíng
  17. Erudition 学識;
    博学bóxué
  18. >devil
    Ethnology 民族学
    dunce [dʌ́ns] のろま
  19. Eulogy 賛辞;
    颂词sòngcí
  20. >devil
    Evangelist 福音伝道者; 福音布道者fúyīn bùdàozhě; good tidings 吉報;
    damnation 天罰
  21. Exception 例外;
    例外lìwài
  22. Experience 経験;
    经验jīngyàn
  1. To perform successively the functions of mastication, humectation, and deglutition.
  2. Secretly to overhear a catalogue of the crimes and vices of another or yourself.
  3. A method of distinction so cheap that fools employ it to accentuate their incapacity.
  4. Purchasing the barrel of whiskey that you do no need for the price of the cow that you cannot afford.
  5. Good to eat, and wholesome to digest, as a worm to a toad, a toad to a snake, a snake to a pig, a pig to a man, and a man to a worm.
  6. A person who spills his will along the paper and cuts it off in lengths to suit. And at intervals from behind the veil of the temple is heard the voice of the foreman demanding three inches of wit and six lines of religious meditation, or bidding him turn off the wisdom and whack up some pathos.
  7. That which discloses to the wise and disguises from the foolish their lack of understanding.
  8. The second of two phenomena which always occur together in the same order. the first, called a Cause, is said to generate the other - which is no more sensible than it would be for one who has never seen a dog except in the pursuit of a rabbit to declare the rabbit the cause of a dog.
  9. The art of orally persuading fools that white is the color that it appears to be. It includes the gift of making any color appear white.
  10. A bondman's change from the tyranny of another to the despotism of himself.
  11. A distemper of youth, curable by small doses of repentance in connection with outward applications of experience.
  12. The coffin of a document; the scabbard of a bill; the husk of a remittance; the bed-gown of a love-letter.
  13. An ornamented badge, serving to distinguish a military officer from the enemy - that is to say, from the officer of lower rank to who his death would give promotion.
  14. An opponent of Epicurus, an abstemious philosopher who, holding that pleasure should be the chief aim of man, wasted no time in gratification from the senses.
  15. A short, sharp saying in prose or verse, frequently characterized by acidity or acerbity and sometimes by wisdom.
  16. An inscription on a tomb, showing that virtues acquired by death have a retroactive effect.
  17. Dust shaken out of a book into an empty skull.
  18. The science that treats of the various tribes of Man, as robbers, thieves, swindlers, dunces, lunatics, idiots and ethnologists.
  19. Praise of a person who has either the advantages of wealth and power, or the consideration to be dead.
  20. A bearer of good tidings, particularly (in a religious sense) such as assure us of our own salvation and the damnation of our neighbors.
  21. A thing which takes the liberty to differ from other things of its class, as an honest man, a truthful woman, etc. "The exception proves the rule" is an expression constantly upon the lips of the ignorant, who parrot it from one another with never a thought of its absurdity. In the Latin, "Exceptio probat regulam." means that the exception tests the rule, puts it to the proof not confirms it.
  22. The wisdom that enables us to recognize as an undesirable old acquaintance the folly that we have already embraced.
  1. 咀嚼、湿潤化、嚥下をうまく行うこと
  2. 他人またはあなた自身が犯したまたは持っている一連の罪悪や悪徳について密かに耳にすること
  3. 目立とうとするあまりにも安価の方法うなので、愚者は己の無能力を強調しようとして用いる方法
  4. 要りもしない一樽分のウィスキーを、買うだけの余裕もないのに牝牛一頭分の価格で購入すること。
  5. 食べるに適し、消化によって健康増進となるもの。例えばカエルにとっての蛆虫、蛇にとってのカエル、豚にとっての蛇、人間にとっての豚、蛆虫にとっての人間がそうである。
  6. 編集者とは、原稿の上に自分の意志をこぼしては、適当な長さにちょん切る人。このような間にも、彼の上司の声が時折神殿の奥から聞こえてきて、機知の表現を3インチ、宗教的瞑想を6行要求したり、知識の部分を削除せよとか、もっと哀感を入れろとか命令してくる。
  7. それぞれ理解力が欠けていることを、賢者に対しては明らかにし、愚者に対しては隠して見せないようにすること。
  8. 常に同じ順序で起こる二つの現象の内、第二のもの。第一のものは原因と呼ばれ、第二を生じさせると言われる。だがウサギを追いかけている場合しか見たことのない者はウサギは犬の原因と断言するようなものである。
  9. 白とは白であるように見える色を指すということを、口頭で愚かな連中に思い込ませる技術。その中にはどんな色では白だと思い込ませる天賦の才能も含まれる。
  10. 奴隷が他人からの暴虐から自分自身による圧制への境遇を変えること
  11. 若者がかかりやすい不調で、少量の後悔と、経験という外での応用によって治る。
  12. 書類の棺桶、請求書の鞘, 送金のから、恋文の寝巻き
  13. 装飾された記章で、敵からある陸軍士官として識別されるのに役立ち、また彼が死ねば、より低い階級の士官が昇進することになる。
  14. エピクロス学派は、禁欲を旨とし、(精神的) 快楽こそが人間の目標であり、時間を惜しんで五感の満足を心がけた哲学者で、美食家とは正反対である。
  15. 散文または韻文を用いた簡潔で鋭い寸言のことで、酸味ないし渋味を特徴とし、時々は英知を特徴とする。
  16. 墓石に彫った銘で、死によって獲得とした美徳には過去にまで遡る効果あることを示す。
  17. 中身が空っぽの頭蓋骨の中にふるい落とした本の埃
  18. 人間の様々な種族、即ち、強盗・泥棒・詐欺師・のろま・狂人・白痴・民族医学者を取り扱う学問
  19. 富と権力という利点をもっているか、あるいは死者への配慮のいずれかで人を褒め称えること。
  20. 特に宗教的な意味での吉報。即ち自身対しては救済を、隣人に対しては天罰を保証する知らせ。
  21. 同一種類のものからあえて区別することで、正直な男とか嘘を言わない女などという。"例外は法則のある証拠"というのは無知な連中がいつも言う言葉だが、それがいかに不合理であるかは深く考えない。ラテン語の"Exceptio probat regulam."とは、例外は規則を試す、つまり吟味するのであってでそれを確証するものではない。
  22. 我々がすでに抱いている愚行は、望ましくもない古い馴染みに過ぎないと認めることができる英知

 

 
  1. >devil
    Faith 信念;
    信心xìnxīn
    parallel 類似
  2. >devil
    Fashion 流行;
    时尚shíshàng;
    dispot 暴君
  3. Female 女性;
    女性nǚxìng
  4. Fidelity 忠実;
    忠诚zhōngchéng
  5. >devil
    Finance 財政;
    财政cáizhèng;
    art 技術・こつ
  6. Flag 旗; 旗qí
  7. Folly 愚行;
    愚蠢yúchǔn
  8. Fool 愚者:
    蠢人chǔnrén
  9. >devilForgetfulness 健忘症; 健忘jiànwàng;
    destitution 不足
  10. >devil
    Friendship 友情;
    友谊yǒuyì;
    foul 悪天候
  11. >devil
    Funeral: 葬式;
    葬礼zànglǐ
    pageant 華麗・虚飾
    attest 証明する
    undertaker 葬儀屋
  12. Future 未来;
    将来jiānglái
  1. Belief without evidence in what is told by one who speaks without knowledge, of things without parallel.
  2. A whom the wise ridicule and obey.
  3. One of the opposing, or unfair sex.
  4. A virtue peculiar to those who are about to be betrayed.
  5. The art or science of managing revenues and resources for the best advantage of the manger.
  6. A colored rag borne above troops and hoisted on forts and ships. it appears to serve the same purpose as certain signs that one sees on vacant lots in London - "Rubbish may be shot here."
  7. That "gift and faculty divine" whose creative and controlling energy inspires Man's mind, guides his actions and adorns his life.
  8. A person who pervades the domain of intellectual speculation and diffuses himself through the channels of moral activity
  9. A gift of God bestowed upon doctor in compensation for their destitution of conscience.
  10. A ship big enough to carry two in fair weather, but only one in foul.
  11. A pageant whereby we attest our respect for the dead by enriching the undertaker, and strengthen our grief by an expenditure that deepens our groans and doubles our tears.
  12. That period of time in which our affairs prosper, our friends are true and our happiness is assured.
  1. 知識もなく、また類例のない物事についてある人が言ったことを証拠もなしに信じること
  2. 賢者が嘲笑しながらもそれに従う暴君
  3. 男性と敵対関係にある、不公平な性
  4. 今まさに裏切られようとしている人々に特有な美徳
  5. 歳入と資源を、管理者の最大の利益になるように処理する技術ないし科学
  6. 軍隊や要塞や軍艦が高く掲げる色のついたボロ布。ロンドンの空き地に見られる"ここにゴミを投棄できる"という達札と同じ目的を持つもののようである。
  7. これは神から授けられた素質と才能であって、人園の精神に霊感を与え、行動を支配し、生活を美しく飾ってくれる。
  8. 知的な思索の領域に進出して、モラル活動の経路を通じて自身を拡散させる人
  9. 良識不足を補って医師に与えられる神が授ける天賦の才
  10. 天気が良ければ二人乗せられるが、天気が悪ければたった一人しか乗せられない程度の船
  11. 葬儀を儲けさせることによって我々の死者への敬意を証明する儀式であって、その支出によって我々の哀悼を強調し、我々の哀しみを増幅し、涙を倍加させる。
  12. 我々の仕事がうまくいき、友達が誠実で、我々の幸福が確実になる一時期。
 
  1. Garrows 絞首台;
    绞刑架jiǎoxíng jià
  2. >devil
    Garter 靴下止め;
    袜带wàdài;
    desolate 荒廃
  3. Genealogy 系図;
    家系jiāxì
  4. >devilGeographer 地理学者; 地理学家dìlǐxué jiā; chap 奴; offhand 即席に
  5. Geology 地質学:
    地质学dìzhìxué
  6. Ghost 幽霊; 鬼guǐ|
    ; to the effect that という意味で
  7. >devil
    Glutton [glʌ́tn]大食漢; 贪吃的人tānchī;
    dyspepsia 消化不良
  8. >devil
    Grammar 文法;
    e 语法yǔfǎ
    distinction 名誉・優遇・風格
  9. Grave: 埋葬所;
    坟墓fénmù
  10. >devilGravitation 引力;
    万有引力wànyǒu yǐnlì; edify 啓発
  11. Guillotine 断頭台;
    断头台duàntóutái;

  1. A stage for the performance of miracle plays, in which the leading actor is translated to heaven. In this country (France) the gallows is chiefly remarkable for the number of persons who escape it.
  2. An elastic band intended to keep a woman from coming out of her stockings and desolating the country.
  3. an account of one's descent from an ancestor who did not particularly care to trace his own.
  4. A chap who cal tell you offhand the difference between the outside of the world and the inside.
  5. The science of the earth's crust.
  6. The outward and visible sign of an inward fear. Somebody's ingenious theory to the effect that they are as much afraid of us as we of them.
  7. A person who escapes the evils of moderation by committing dyspepsia.
  8. A system of pitfalls thoughtfully prepared for the feet for the self-made man, along the path by which he advances to distinction.
  9. A place in which the dear are laid to await the coming of the medical student.
  10. The tendency of all bodies to approach one another with a strength proportion to the quantity of matter they contain - the quantity of matter they contain being ascertained by the strength of their tendency to approach one another. This is a lovely and edifying illustration of how science, have made A the proof of B, makes B the proof of A.
  11. A machine which make a Frenchman shrug his shoulders with good reason. Frenchmen are descended from turtles and it is simply a survival of the habit of retracting the head inside the shell.
  1. 奇跡劇 [殉教者を題材にした中世劇] を演ずるための舞台であって、そこではその主役が天国に昇る。我が国では、絞首台はそれを免れる者の数が多いことでも有名である。
  2. 女性が靴下を脱ぎ捨てて国を荒廃させることがないようにとの意図をもったゴムバンド
  3. 自分自身の血統をたどろうなどとは思わなかった祖先からいかに血統を引いているかを記述したもの。
  4. 世間の外側と内側の違いを即座に告げることができる輩
  5. 地球の地殻に関する科学。
  6. 内なる恐怖が外に現れた目に見える印。誰かの巧みな説だが、人間が幽霊を怖がるのど同様に、幽霊の方もでも人間を怖がっているという。
  7. 消化不良に陥ることで節制することの弊害を免れる人
  8. 独力で叩き上げる人が社会的成功に向かって進む道に沿って、その足下に周到に準備された落とし穴。
  9. 医学生がやってくるまで死者を横たえておく場所
  10. あらゆる物体がそれぞれの持つ質量に比例する力で相互に聞か付き合おうとする傾向。それぞれの持つ質量は、相互に近づきあ合う強さによって知ることができる。これは科学が、AをもってBを証明し、次にBをもってAを証明すえるといいうい真に結構な教訓的な例証である。
  11. フランス人なら無理もないが誰もが方をすくめないではいられない機械。フランス人の祖先はウミガメであり、この仕草は甲羅の中へ首を引っ込めるこという名残に他ならない。

 

 
  1. Hand 手; 手shǒu
  2. >devil
    Handkerchief ハンカチ; 手帕shǒupà;
    ignoble 粗悪な;
    office 任務・仕事
  3. Happiness 幸福;
    幸福xìngfú;
  4. Harbor 港;
    港口gǎngkǒu
  5. Hatred 憎しみ;
    仇恨chóuhèn
  6. Heaven 天国;
    天堂tiāntáng
  7. Helpmate 連れ合い; 伴侣bànlǚ
  8. History 歴史;
    历史lìshǐ; knave 悪漢
  9. >devil
    Homicide 殺人;
    杀人shārén;
    slay 殺害する;
    felonious 凶悪
    excusable 許容される;
  10. Hope 希望;
    希望xīwàng
  11. Hostility 敵意;
    敌意díyì
  12. House 家;
    房子fángzi
  13. Hypocrite 偽善者;
    伪君子wěijūnzǐ
  1. A singular instrument worn at the end of the human arm and commonly thrust into somebody's pocket.
  2. A small square of silk or linen, used in various ignoble offices about the face and especially serviceable at funerals to conceal the lack of tears. The handkerchief is of recent invention; our ancestors knew nothing of it and instructed its duties to the sleeve.
  3. An agreeable sensation arising from contemplating the misery of another.
  4. A place where ships taking shelter from storms are exposed to the fury of the customs.
  5. A sentiment appropriate to the occasion of another's superiority.
  6. A place where the wicked cease from troubling you with talk of their personal affairs, and the good listen with attenti0on while you expound your own.
  7. A wife, or bitter half.
  8. An account mostly false, of events mostly unimportant, which are brought about by rulers mostly knaves, and soldiers mostly fools.
  9. The slaying of one human being by another. There are four kinds of homicide; felonious, excusable, justifiable, and praiseworthy, but it makes no great difference to the person slain whether he fell by one kind or another - the classification is for advantage of the lawyers.
  10. Desire and expectation rolled into one.
  11. A peculiarly sharp and specially applied sense of the earth's overpopulation. Hostility is classified s active and passive; as the feeling of a woman for her female friends, and that which she entertains for all the rest of her sex.
  12. A hollow edifice erected for the habitation of man, rat, mouse, beetle, cockroach, fly, mosquito, flea, bacillus and microbe.
  13. One who, professing virtues that he does not respect secures the advantage of seeming to be that he despises.
  1. 人間の腕の先端についていて、通常他人のポケットに突っ込むのに用いる変わった道具。
  2. 小さな四角い絹または麻の布切れで、通常これを使って顔に関してさまざまな下劣な役目を果させ、特に葬式の際に涙が一向に出てこないのを隠そうするときに重宝する。ハンカチは近年の発明であって我々の祖先は、それを知らなかったので、その務めを袖口に託した。
  3. 他人の不幸を熟考することから生じる気持ちの良い感覚
  4. 暴風雨から避けた船が、今度は激しい関税の波を被る場所
  5. 他人が優越感を抱く場合にふさわしい感情
  6. 悪しきものが一身上のことを語ってあなたを悩ませれことをせずに、良き者が熱心に聞いてくれる場所
  7. 上坊、より大きな半分(better half) ならぬ悩み多き半分 (bitter half)
  8. ほとんど重要でないことについての間違っている記述で、大抵は悪者である支配者と大抵は愚か者である兵士によって引き起こされ出来事。
  9. 一人の人間がある人間によって殺されること。殺人には4種類ある。すなわち、凶悪な殺人、怨すべき殺人、正当な殺人、称賛すべき殺人である。どの種類に属しようと殺される当人にとっては大きな差はない。これらの分類は法律家のためのものである。
  10. 欲望と期待とを丸めて一つにしたもの
  11. 地球上が過剰人口であることをとくに痛感・実感すること。敵意には積極的な場合と消極的な場合の二種類がある。すなわち、女性が同性の友人に対して抱く感情と、他のいあらゆる同性の者に対していだく感情とがある。
  12. 中が虚ろな建物で、人間・ドブネズミ・ハツカネズミ・ゴキブリ・甲虫・ゴキブリ・蝿・蚊・ノミ・バチルス・細菌が住むために作られた。
  13. 自分が尊敬していない美徳を公言する者は、自分が軽蔑しているようにみえるという利点を確保する。
 
  1. Idiot 馬鹿者;
    傻瓜shǎguā
  2. Idleness 怠惰;
    闲散xiánsǎn
  3. Imagination 想像;
    想象力xiǎngxiànglì
  4. Immigrant 移民;
    移民yímín
  5. Indecision 優柔不断; 优柔寡断yōuróu guǎduàn
  6. Insurance 保険;
    保险bǎoxiǎn
  7. Inventor 発明家:
    发明者fāmíngzhě
  8. Irreligion 無宗教;
    无宗教wú zōngjiào

  1. A member of a large and powerful tribe whose influence in human affairs has always been dominant adn conrolling.
  2. A model farm where the devil experiements with seeds of new sins and promotes the growth of staple vices.
  3. A warehouse of facts, with poet and liar in joint owernership.
  4. An unenlightened person who thinks one country better than another.
  5. The chief element of success. There is but one way to do nothing and diverse way to do something, whereof, to a surety, one one is the right way, it followeth that he who from indecison standeth still hath not so many chances of going astray as he who pusheth forwards.
  6. An ingenious modern game of chance in which the player is permitted to enjoy the cofortable conviction that he is beating the man who keeps the table.
  7. A person who makes an ingenious arrangement of wheels, levers and springs, and believes it civilization.
  8. The principal one of the great faiths of the world.
  1. 巨大で強力な部族の一員で、人間の行動において常に有力で支配的な影響力を持っている。
  2. 悪魔が、新たな罪の種を実験し、いつもの悪徳の成長を促進するモデル農場。
  3. 詩人と嘘つきが共同で所有する事実の倉庫
  4. ある国が他のくにより優れていると考える無学の人
  5. 成功の主な要素。何もやらない方法は一つで、なにかを行うには様々な方法がある。確実に正しい方法は一つしかないので、優柔不断で立ち尽くす人は、前進する人より、道に迷う可能性はそれほど多くない。
  6. 保険の参加者に、堂本を破産させつつあるという快適な革新を抱かせてくれる独創的な近代的な運次第の勝負事。
  7. 歯車と梃子とゼンマイを巧みに組み合わせることで何かを作り、それを文明と信じる人
  8. 世界中の偉大の信仰の中で主要な信仰
 
  1. Jealous嫉妬深い;
    嫉妒的jídù
  2. >devil
    Justice 正義;
    公正gōngzhèng;
    adulterate 品質を落とす;
    allegiance 忠誠
  1. Unduly concerned about the preservation of that which can be lost only if not worth keeping.
  2. A commodity which is a more ore less adulterated condition the State sells to the citizen as a reward for his allegiance, taxes and personal service.
  1. 保存する価値のない場合に失われる可能性のあるものの保存について過度に心配すること。
  2. 忠誠、税金、個人的奉仕に対する報酬として、政府が市民に売りつける、程度の差こそあれ、品質の落ちている商品
 
  1. Kill 殺す;
    杀死shāsǐ
  2. King 国王;
    国王guówáng
  3. >devil
    Kiss 接吻;
    亲吻qīnwěn; rite 儀式; appertain 帰属する
  1. To create a vacancy without nominating a successor.
  2. A male person commonly known in America as a crwoned head, although he never wears a crown and has usually no head to speak of.
  3. A word invented by the poets as a rhyme for bliss. It is supposed to signify some kind of rite or ceremony appertaining to a good understanding.
  1. 後継者の指名を行うことなく空席を作ること。
  2. 米国では王冠をいただいた頭として一般的に知られれいる男性のことで、王冠を決してかぶることもなく、かつ特に言うほどの頭ももっていない。
  3. bliss (至福) を員を踏む言葉として詩人が作り出した単語。意思疎通に関連のあるある種の儀式や祭典を意味すると考えられている。
 
  1. Labor 労働;
    劳动láodòng
  2. >devil
    Land 土地;
    陆地lùdì;
    trespass 不法侵入
  3. Language 言語;
    语言yǔyán
  4. >devil
    Lap 膝;
    大腿部dàtuǐbù
    ; repose 休憩・平穏; rudimentary 未発達
  5. Lawful 合法的;
    合法的héfǎde
  6. Lawyer 法律家;
    律师lǜshī
  7. >devil
    Laziness ものぐさ;
    懒惰lǎnduò;
    unwarranted 不当な
  8. Lecgturer 講演者;
    讲演者jiǎngyǎn
  9. >devil
    Legacy 遺産;
    遗产yíchǎn;
    leg; 歩く、走る
    vale 谷間
  10. >devilLexicographer 辞書編纂者; 词典编纂者cídiǎn biānzuǎnzhě;
    pestilent 有害な;
    pretense いんちき;
    stiffen 固める;
    servility 盲従:
    tartly きびしく
  11. >devil
    Life 生命・人生;
    生命shēngmìng;
    apprehension 不安
  12. >devil
    Looking-Glass: 鏡;
    镜子jìng;
    fleeting 束の間の;
    disillusion 幻滅
  13. Loquacity 多弁;
    健谈jiàntán
  14. Love 恋愛;
    爱ài

  1. One of the processes by which A acquires property for B.
  2. A part of the earth's surface, considered as property. The theory that land is property subject to private ownership and control is foundation of modern society, and is eminently worthy of the superstructure. It means that some have the right to prevent others from living; for the right to own implies the right exclusively to occupy; and in fact laws of trespass are enacted wherever property in land is recognized.
  3. The music with which we charm the serpents guarding another's treasure.
  4. One of the most important organs of the female system - an admirable provision of nature for the repose of infancy, but chiefly useful in rural festivities to support plates of cold chicken and heads of adult males. the male of our species has rudimentary lap, imperfectly developed and in no way contributing to the animals' substantial welfare.
  5. Compatible with the will of a judge having jurisdiction.
  6. One skilled in circumvention of the law.
  7. Unwarranted repose of manner in a person of low degree.
  8. One with his hand in your pocket, his tongue in your ear and his faith in your patience.
  9. A gift from one who is legging it our of this vale of tears.
  10. A pestilent fellow who, under the pretense of recording some particular stage in the development of a language, does what he can to arrest its growth, stiffen its flexibility and mechanize its methods. For your lexicographer, having written his dictionary, comes to be considered "as one having authority," whereas his function is only to make a record, not to give a law. The natural servility of the human understanding having invested him with judicial power, surrenders its right of reason and submits itself to a chronicle as if it were a statute. Let the dictionary mark a good word as "obsolete" or "obsolescent" and few men thereafter venture to use it, whatever their need of it and however desirable its restoration to favor - whereby the process of impoverishment is accelerated and speech decays. On the contrary, the bold and discerning writer who, recognizing the truth that language must grown by innovation if it grow at all, makes new words and uses the old in an unfamiliar sense, has no following and is tartly reminded that "it isn't in the dictionary" - although down to the time of the first lexicographer no author ever had used a word that was in the dictionary.
  11. A spiritual pickle preserving the body from decay. We live in daily apprehension of its loss; yet when lost it is not missed. The question, "Is life worth living?" has been much discussed; particularly by those who think it is not, many of whom have written at great length in support of their view and by careful observance of the laws of health enjoyed for long terms of years the honors of successful controversy.
  12. A vitreous plane upon which to display a fleeting show for man's disillusion given.
  13. A disorder which renders the sufferer unable to curb his tongue when you wish to talk.
  14. A temporary insanity curable by marriage or by removal of the patient from the influences under which he incurred the disorder. This disease, like caries and many other ailments, is prevalent only among civilized races living under artificial conditions; barbarous nations breathing pure air and eating simple food enjoy immunity from its ravages.
  1. AがBのために財産を獲得してやる方法の一つ。
  2. 財産とみなされている地球表面の一部。土地は私的な所有と管理対象の資産であるという理論は、近代社会の基礎であり、上部構造に非常に価値がある。それは、ある者には、他人の生存を妨げる権利があることを意味する。というのは所有する権利は排他的に専有する権利を意味するからである。実際に土地の財産が認められる場所であればどこでも不法侵入に関する法律が制定されている。
  3. 我々がそれを使って他人の宝物の番をしている蛇たちをうまく魅了づける音楽
  4. 女性に備わっている最重要な器官の一つで、幼い子を乗せて安眠させるのに適切なものを自然が用意してくれた。その他の用途として田舎のまつりの際に冷たいチキンの皿や、成人男性の頭なりを乗せて支えるのに使われる。同じ人類の男性にも膝はあるが、それは未発達であって、この動物の実質的な幸福には少しも役立たない。
  5. 司法権を有する裁判官の意志と合致していること。
  6. 法の網をかいくぐる技術に習熟している人
  7. 下層な人間が見せる不当な落ち着きの態度
  8. 片方の手をあなたのポケットに突っ込みながら、舌はあなたの耳に入れて、あなたの忍耐力を信じて疑わない人
  9. 涙の谷間から走り去っていく人が後に残していく贈り物
  10. 辞書編纂者は、実は有害な人物で、ある言語の発展における特定段階を記録すると称して、できるかぎりその成長を妨げ、柔軟性を奪い取り、その方法を機械的にしようとする。辞書編纂者は、一旦辞書を作ると、権威を持つとみなされるようになるが、実は単に記録を作り出すだけで、法律を作る訳ではない。人間の理解力は自然と盲従する傾向があるので、辞書編纂者にはある意味で司法権があると思い込んで、自らの理性を放棄して、あたかもそれが法令集であるように、一つの記録をそのまま甘んじて受けてしまう。例えば、辞書が一旦優れた単語を"廃語"や"ほぼ廃語"をしたら、どれほどその単語を必要であろうと、また元通りの用法に復活することが望ましく思えても、敢えてその単語を使おうとする人はほとんどいなくなってしまう。そうして言語の貧困化の過程が進行し、言語は堕落していくしかなくなる。反対に、大胆でかつ洞察力をもつ著者が、言葉が成長するものであれば、それを革新することで可能になると認めて、新語を作ったり、古い単語を珍しい意味に使ったりして、いくら革新を試みても、その例に見倣おうとする人は一人もでてこず、"そんな単語は辞書で出ていない"として厳しく指摘されることになる。実は、最初の辞書編纂者が現れるまでは、辞書にある単語を使った著者は一人もいないにも関わらずなのに。
  11. 肉体を腐敗しないように保存しておく精神的な漬物。我々は毎日それを失くして大変と心配しながら毎日を過ごしている。だがいざ失ってみるとそれほど惜しいとは思わなくなる。"人生は生きるだけの価値があるか"という問題は昔から議論されてきた。特に価値なしと思う人がこの問題を取り上げるが、その連中は、自分の見解の正しさを確証しようとして長々と書き立てる。一方で、健康の法則を注意深く守り続けることで長年に渡って論議の名誉ある成果を享受してきた者が多くいる。
  12. ガラスの板で、その上で人が迷いから目を覚ますようにと束の間の芝居が演じられる
  13. 病気の一種で、あなたが話したいと思うのに、自分の舌を制御することができなくなるような病気
  14. 一時的な精神異常で、結婚するかまたこの病気の原因となった外的影響から患者を遠ざければ治る。この病気はカリエスその他の病気と同様、人工的な条件で暮らす文明人にだけ発生し、清らかな空気を吸い、粗末な食生活をしている未開人はこの病気から免れている。
 
  1. >devil
    Mad 狂気の;
    疯的fēngde;
    destitute 欠いている
  2. Magic 魔術;
    魔法mófǎ
  3. >devil
    Maiden 処女;
    少女shàonǚ;
    clewless 手掛かりがない
  4. Male 男性;
    男性的nánxìng
  5. Malefactor 悪人
  6. Man 人間; 人rén;
    rapturous 熱狂的
    indubitable 確かな
  7. Marriage 結婚;
    婚姻hūnyīn
  8. Mayonnaise マヨネーズ; 蛋黄酱dànhuáng jiàng
  9. >devil
    Minister 大臣・公使; 部长bùzhǎng
    ; inveracity 不誠実
  10. Miss ミス;
    小姐xiǎojiě
  11. Monarch 君主;
    君主jūnzhǔ
  12. Money 金銭;
    钱qián
  13. Monument 記念碑;
    纪念碑jìniànbēi
  14. >devil
    Moral 道徳的;
    道德的dàodé;
    mutable 移り気の
    expediency: 便宜
  15. Multitude 群衆;
    群众qúnzhòng
  16. Mythology 神話;
    神话shénhuà

  1. Affected with a high degree of intellectual independence; not conforming to standards of thought, speech and action derived by the conformants from study of themselves; at odds with the majority; in short, unusual. It is noteworthy that persons are pronounced mad by officials destitute of evidence that themselves are sane.
  2. An art of converting superstition into coin.
  3. A young person of the unfair sex addicted to clewless conduct and views that madden to crime.
  4. A member of the unconsidered, or negligible sex. The male of the human race is commonly known (to the female) as Mere Man. The genus has two varieties: good provides and bad providers.
  5. The chief factor in the progress of the human race.
  6. An animal so lost in rapturous contemplation of what he thinks he is as to overlook what he indubitably ought to be. His chief occupation is extermination of other animals and his own species, which, however, multiplies with such insistent rapidity as to infest the whole habitable earth and Canada.
  7. The state or condition of a community consisting of a maser, a mistress and two slaves, making in all, two.
  8. One of the sauces which serve the French in place of a state religion.
  9. An agent of higher power with a lower responsibility. In diplomacy an officer sent into a foreign country as the visible embodiment of his sovereign's hostility. His principal qualification is a degree of plausible inveracity next below that of an ambassador.
  10. The title with which we brand unmarried women to indicate that they in the market. Miss, Mrs. and Mr. are the three most distinctly disagreeable words in the language, in sound and sense. Two are corruptions Mistress, the other of Master. In the general abolition of social titles in this our country they miraculously escaped to plague us. If we much have them let us be consistent and give one to the unmarried man. I venture to suggest Mush, abbreviated to Mh.
  11. A person engaged in reigning. Formerly the monarch ruled, as the derivation of the word attests, and as many subjects have had occasion to learn. In Russia and the Orient the monarch has still a considerable influence in public affairs and in the disposition of the human head, but in western Europe political administration is mostly entrusted to his ministers, he being somewhat preoccupied with reflections relation to the status of his own head.
  12. A blessing that is of no advantage to us excepting when we part with it. An evidence of culture and a passport to polite society. Supportable property.
  13. A structure intended to commemorate something which either needs no commemoration or cannot be commemorated.
  14. Conforming to a local and mutable standard of right. Having the quality of general expediency.
  15. A crowd; the source of political wisdom and virtue. In a republic, the object of the statesman's adoration. If many men of equal individual wisdom are wiser than any one of them, it must be that they acquire the excess of wisdom by the mere act of getting together. Whence comes it? Obviously form nowhere - as well say that a range of mountains is higher than the single mountains composing it. A multitude is as wise as its wisest member if it obey him; if not, it is no wiser than is most foolish.
  16. The body of a primitive people's beliefs concerning its origin, early history, heroes, deities and so forth, as distinguished from the true accounts which it invents later.
  1. 高度の知的独立心に冒された。自身を研究することで同調者が導き出した標準的な思想、現行、行動に敢えて同調しようとしないこと。大多数と相容れない。要するに異常。ある人は狂気だと断定されるのは、当の本人が正気である証拠がない役人であるというのは注目に値する。
  2. 嗚咽を金銭に変化させる技術
  3. どっちつかずの性の若い人だが、わけのわからない行動や考えではたの者を気を狂わせ罪を犯しかねない。
  4. 取るに足らないあるいは無視できる性を構成する。人類の男性は (女性にとっては) 単なる男として知られている。その種類としては衣食の十分な供給者と不十分な供給者がいる。
  5. 人類を進歩させる主要な要因。
  6. 自分が何者であるかを熱心に熟考するあまり、間違いなく自分がどうあるべきかを見逃している動物。彼の主な役割は、他の動物や自身の種の絶滅であるが、それ自身の種は非常に急速に増殖し、居住可能な地球やカナダにさえ蔓延している。
  7. 一つの共同体の状態で、一人の主人と一人の主婦と二人の奴隷からなり、それで全体では二人しかならない状態。
  8. フランス人にとって国教に代わってくれるソースの一つ
  9. 権限はかなり大きいが責任が軽い代理人。外交では、主権者の敵意の目に見える形で外国に派遣される役人である。彼の第一の資格は、大使のそれをわずかに下回る程度の不誠実さを備えることにある。
  10. 未婚の女性にこの刻印を押すことによって、彼女たちが市場に出ていることを示す。Miss, Mrs., Mr. は明らかに音と意味において不愉快な3つの単語である。初めの二つはMistressの、最後はMasterのなまったものである。我が国では社交上の敬称が一般的には廃止されたが、これらはそれを奇跡的に逃れて我々を悩まし続ける。どうしてもこれら三つを使い続けるのであれば、未婚の男性にも肩書をつけてことにしよう。その案として、私はMush、省略形Mh.というのを提案する。
  11. 統治に従事する人。昔の君主はこの単語の語源が示すように、また多くの臣下が体験してきたように支配を行ってきた。ロシアや東洋では君主は依然として、国事や人間の頭の処分について相当な力を持っているが、西ヨーロッパでの政治の運営は各省大臣に委託されていて、君主は自分自身の頭の状態に思いをめぐらすことに忙殺されている傾向がある。
  12. 我々が手放す場合を除いて我々にとってなんの利益ももたらさない結構な代物。教養の印であり、社交界への入場券。持ち運びできる財産。
  13. 記念する必要がないか、または記念することができないものを記念する意図で建てられた建造物
  14. 辺境で変化しやすい是非の標準に順応すること。何事も便宜的に済ませようとする特質を備えた。
  15. 群衆。政治的た家と美徳の源。共和制では、政治家の崇拝の的。もし同等の知恵をもった多くの人がその中の誰よりも賢明であるとしたら、それは彼らが集まるという単なる行為によって過剰な知恵を獲得しすることになる。それはどこからきたのか。明らかにどこからでもない。あたかも一連の山々がそれを構成する単一の山より高いということになる。群衆はその最も賢明な構成員と同様に賢明である。そうでなければ、その中の最も愚かな構成員と同程度の知恵しかないということになる。
  16. 原始的な人々が抱いている信仰で、自分たちの期限、昔の歴史、英雄たち、神々などについてで、後に発見される真実の説明とは区別される。

 

 
  1. Neighbor 隣人;
    邻居línjū
  2. Newtonian: ニュートン信奉者;
    牛顿的niúdùnde
  3. Nobleman 貴族;
    贵族gùizú
  4. >devil
    Noise 騒音;
    声音ahēngyīn;
    stench 悪臭
  5. >devil
    Nose 鼻; 鼻子bízi
    quell 鎮圧
    ínference 推論
  6. >devil
    Novel 小説;
    小说xiǎoshuō;
    efface 拭い去る


  1. One whom we are commanded to love as ourselves, and who does all he knows how to make us disobedient.
  2. Pertaining to a philosophy of the universe invented by Newton, who diccovered that an apple will fall to the ground, but was unable to say why. His successors and disciples have advanced so far as to be able to say when.
  3. Nature's provision for wealthy American minds ambitious to incur social distinction and suffer high life.
  4. A stench in the ear. Undomesticated music. The chief product and authenticating sign of civilization.
  5. The extreme outpost of the face. From the circumstance that great conquerors have great noses, Getius, whose writings antedate th age of humor, calls the nose the organ of quell. It has been observed that one's nose is never so happy as when thrust into the affairs of others, from which some physiologists have drawn the inference that the nose is devoid of the sense of smell.
  6. A short story padded. A species of composition bearing the same relation to literature that the panorama bears to art. As it is too long to be read at a sitting the impressions made by its successive parts are successively effaced, as in the panorama. Unity, totality of effect, is impossible; for besides the few pages last read all that is carried in mind is the mere plot of what has gone before. To the romance the novel is what photography is to painting. Its distinguishing principle, probability, corresponds to the literal actuality of the photograph and puts it distinctly into the category of reporting.
  1. 我々の方は、命令 (マタイ伝)にあるように、自分を愛するように愛せと言われているが、隣人はあらゆる手を尽くして我々にその命令に背かせようとしている。
  2. ニュートンが発見した宇宙理論に関することで、りんごは地上に落ちることを発見したが、なぜということは示せなかった。彼の後継者や門下生は研究wおお指数s目、いつ落ちるかについてははっきり占めることができるようになった。
  3. 社会的名声を引き受け、上流生活に耐えようという豊かな米国精神の野心のために自然が用意してくれたもの。
  4. 耳ににおってくる悪臭。野生の音楽。文明の主な生成物でその歴然とした証拠。
  5. 人の顔の最前哨地点。偉大な征服者はすべて偉大な鼻を有しており、Getiusはユーモアを解する時代に先行して著作した人物で、鼻を鎮圧器官を呼んだ。我々は他人のことに鼻をつっこんでも大した満足をえられないことが多く観察され、それによって生理学者の中には、鼻には嗅覚を欠くのではと推論した人がいる。
  6. 水増しした短編小説。これは作文の一種で、その文学への対応は、パノラマが美術に対するのと同様である。小説はあまりに長すぎて次々と続く各部分からそれぞれ何らかの印象を受け取っても、パノラマのように次ぐ次ぎかき消されてしまう。小説では、統一性、つまり単一の効果は不可能である。心に残るものは今読み終えた数ページを別にすれば、それ以前の部分は単なる筋だけにすぎない。小説とロマンス(恋愛小説)関係は、写真と絵画の関係に匹敵する。小説の持つ原則性はおそらく写真における正確な写実性に相当し、この原理によって、小説はあきらかに報道に分類されることになる。
 
  1. Oblívion 忘却;
    忘却wàngquè;
    dreary 退屈な
  2. Observatory 天文台; 天文台tiānwéntái
    ; conjecture 推測
  3. Occident 西洋;
    西方世界xīfāng shìjiè;
    hypocrite 偽善者
  4. Optimism 楽天観; 乐观lèguān;
  5. Optimist 楽天主義者; 乐观主义者lèguān zhǔyìzhě
    ; proponent 提案者
  6. Orphan 孤児;
    孤儿gūér
  7. Owe 借金がある; 欠qiàn
  1. The state or condition in which the wicked cease from struggling and the dreary are at rest. Fame's eternal dumping ground. Cold storage for high hopes. A place where ambitious authors meet their works without pride and their betters without envy. A dormitory without an alarm clock.
  2. A place where astronomers conjecture away the guesses of their predecessors.
  3. The part of the world lying west of the Orient. It is largely inhabited by Christians, a powerful subtribe of the Hypocrites, whose principal industries are murder and cheating, which they are pleased to call "war" and "commerce." These, also, are the principal industries of the Orient.
  4. The doctrine, or belief, that everything is beautiful, including what is ugly, everything good, especially the bad, and everything right that is wrong.
  5. A proponent of the doctrine that black is white.
  6. A living person whom death has deprived of the power of filial ingratitude.
  7. have (and hold) a debt. The word formerly signified not indebtedness, but possession; it meant "own," and int eh minds of debtors there is still a good deal of confusion between assets and liabilities.
  1. 悪しき者が闘争をやめ、退屈な者が休息をする状態をいう。名声にとっては永遠のゴミ捨て場。高邁なりそうにとっての冷たい倉庫。野心的な著作家にとっては自身の著作と対峙しても自慢したい気持ちが怒らず、自分より優れた人に対しても嫉妬心も感じない場所。目覚時計のない共同の寝室。
  2. 天文学者が、先輩が行った推測に対してあれこれ憶測を逞しくする場所
  3. 地球の一部分で東洋の西に横たわる。そこの大部分は偽善者と呼ばれる有力な亜属であるキリスト教徒が住んでおり、その主要産業は殺人と詐欺であり、彼らはそれぞれを"戦争"および"商業"と名付けることを良しとしている。これらはまた東洋の主要産業でもある。
  4. 醜いものも含めて全てが美しいとし、あらゆるもの、とくに悪しき者も善とする主義または信念。
  5. 黒を白なりとする主張を奉ずる者
  6. この世に生きていながら(両親の)死によって親不幸をする力を奪い取られている者
  7. 借金を抱えている。この言葉は以前は負債を意味するのではなく所有、すなわち"own"という意味でした。それで債務者の心中では、資産と負債の間にはかなりの混乱がありました。

 

  1. Pain 苦痛;
    痛苦tòngkǔ
  2. Pantheism 汎神論; 泛神论fànsén lùn; contradistinction 対比
  3. >devil
    Pardon 赦免;
    原谅yuánliàng;
    remit 免除
  4. Past 過去; 过guò
    ; efface 抹消する
  5. Patriot 愛国者;
    爱国者àiguózhě;
    dupe 騙されやすい人
  6. Patriotism 愛国心;
    爱国精神àiguó jīngshen;
    combustible 可燃性の
  7. Peace 平和;
    和平hépíng
  8. Perfection 完全;
    完美wánměi
  9. >devilPerseverance 忍耐;
    忍耐rěnnài
    ; mediocrity 凡庸
  10. Pessimism 悲観論;
    悲观情绪bēiguān qíngxù;
    dishearten 意気消沈 ; scarecrow こけおどし; unsightly 醜い
  11. Pityful 憐れむべき; 可怜kǔlián
  12. Plan 計画;
    计划jìhuà
  13. Pocket ポケット;
    衣袋yīdài
  14. Police 警察;
    警察jǐngchá
  15. Politeness 礼儀正しい; 礼貌lǐmào;
    hypócrisy 偽言
  16. Politician 政治家;
    政治家zhèngzhìjiā
    ; rear建立する
  17. Politics 政治;
    政治zhènghì
    ; strife 闘争;
    masquerade 虚構
  18. Polygamy 一夫多妻; 一夫多妻
    yīfū duōqī;
    atonement 贖罪
    expiatory 贖罪
    repentance 懺悔
  19. Pray 祈願する;
    祈求qíqiú;
    confessedly 自認している
  20. Precedent 先例;
    先例xiānlì;
    trail-at-law 試罪法
    fortuitous ordeal偶然による神判
  21. >devilPredestination 予定説; foreordination 運命論; gore 流血; reverent 敬虔な; perdition 地獄落ち; if spared ご加護
  22. Predicament: 窮地;
    困境kùnjìng;
    wage 報い
  23. >devil
    Preference 好み;
    偏爱piānài;
    expound 解説;
    discíple 弟子
  24. >devil
    Prehistoric 有史以前の;
    史前的shǐqián; antedate 先行
  25. Prerogative 大権;
    特权tèquán
  26. Prescription 処方; 处方chǔfāng
  27. President 大統領;
    总统zǒngtǒng
  28. Projectile 発射物;
    导弹dǎodàn;
    rudimentary 初歩




  1. An uncomfortable frame of mind that may have a physical basis in something that is being done to the body, or may be purely mental, caused by the good fortune of another.
  2. The doctrine that everything is God, in contradistinction to the doctrine that Go is everything.
  3. To remit a penalty and restore to the life of crime. To add to the lure of crime the temptation of ingratitude.
  4. That part of Eternity with some small fraction of which we have a slight and regrettable acquaintance. A moving line called the Present parts it from an imaginary period known as the Future. These two grand divisions of Eternity, of which the one is continually effacing the other, are entirely unlike. The one is dark with sorrow and disappointment, the other bright with prosperity and joy. The Pas it the region of sobs, the Future is the realm of song. The Past is the Future of yesterday, the Future is the Past of tomorrow. They are one - the knowledge and the dream.
  5. One to whom the interests of a part seem superior to those of the whole. The dupe of statesmen and the tool of conquerors.
  6. Combustible rubbish ready to the torch of any one ambitious to illuminate his name.
  7. In international affairs, a period of cheating between two periods of fighting.
  8. An imaginary state of quality distinguished from the actual by an element known as excellence; an attribute of the critic.
  9. A lowly virtue whereby mediocrity achieves an inglorious success.
  10. A philosophy forced upon the convictions of the observer by the disheartening prevalence of the optimist with his scarecrow hope and his unsightly smile.
  11. The state of an enemy or opponent after an imaginary encounter with oneself.
  12. To bother about the best method of accomplishing an accidental result.
  13. The cradle of motive and the grave of conscience. In woman this organ is lacking; so she acts without motive, and her conscience, denied burial, remains ever alive, confessing the sins of others.
  14. An armed force for protection and participation.
  15. The most acceptable hypocrisy.
  16. An eel in the fundamental mud upon which the superstructure of organized society is reared. When he wriggles he mistakes the agitation of his tail for the trembling of the edifice. As compared with the statesman, he suffers the disadvantage of being alive.
  17. A strife of interests masquerading as a contest of principles. The conduct of public affairs for private advantage.
  18. A house of atonement, or expiatory chapel, fitted with several stools of repentance, as distinguished from monogamy, which has but one.
  19. To ask that the laws of the universe be annulled in behalf of a single petitioner confessedly unworthy.
  20. In law, a previous decision, rule or practice which, in the absence of a definite statute, has whatever force and authority a Judge may choose to give it, thereby greatly simplifying his task of doing as he pleases. As there are precedents for everything, he has only to ignore those that make against his interest and accentuate those in the line of his desire. Invention of the precedent elevated the trail-at-law from the low estate of a fortuitous ordeal to the noble attitude of a dirigible arbitrament.
  21. The doctrine that all things occur according to programme. This doctrine should not be confused with that of foreordination, which means that all things are programmed, but does not affirm their occurrence, that being only an implication from other doctrines by which this is entailed. The difference is great enough to have deluged Christendom with ink, to say nothing of the gore. With the distinction of the two doctrines kept well in mind, and a reverent belief in both, one may hope to escape perdition if spared.
  22. The wage of consistency.
  23. A sentiment, or frame of mind, induced by the erroneous belief that one thing is better than another. An ancient philosopher, expounding his conviction that life is no better than death, was asked by a disciple why, then, he did not die. "Because," he replied, "death is no better than life." It is longer.
  24. Belonging to an early period and a museum. Antedating the art and practice of perpetuating falsehood.
  25. A sovereign's right to do wrong.
  26. A physician's guess at what will best prolong the situation with least harm to the patient.
  27. The leading figure in a small group of men of whom - and of whom only - it is positively known that immense number of their country-men did not want any of them for President.
  28. The final arbiter in international disputes. Formerly these disputes were settled by physical contact of the disputants, with such simple arguents as the rudimentary logic of the times could supply - the sword, the spear, and so forth. With the growth of prudence in military affairs the projectile came more and more into favor, and is now held in high esteem by the most courageous. Its capital defect is that it requires personal attendance at the point of propulsion.
  1. 不愉快な気持ちで、体に対して何か肉体的な根拠を持つ場合もあれば、あるいは純粋に精神的なものもので、他人の幸運が原因という場合もある。
  2. 神は万物なりとする教義に対して、万物は神なりとする教義
  3. 刑罰を免除して、再び犯罪の生活に戻すこと。犯罪の誘惑に忘恩の誘惑を加える。
  4. 過去とは、我々はわずかに、しかもそれに後悔せざるをえない永遠の一部分である。現在という動いてやまぬ線によって、未来と呼ばれる想像上の区間と区別される。過去と未来は、永遠の二大区分であり、一方は他方を常に抹殺しつづけており、その性質は完全に異なっている。一方は哀しみと失望で暗く、他方は繁栄と喜びで明るい。過去は忍び泣きの領域であり、未来は歌声の世界である。過去は昨日の未来であり、未来は明日の過去である。結局、両者は一つのもの、即ち、知識と夢に他ならない。
  5. 部分の履歴が全体の利益より大事だと考えがちな人。政治家に騙されやすいし、征服者の道具となる人
  6. 自分の名声を輝かしいものにしたいという野心を持った者が松明を近づけるとすぐに燃えだす可燃性の屑物
  7. 国際関係において、二つの戦争の時期に介在する騙し合²及び取締役・ gv vc」;ー= 期間。
  8. 卓越という要素によって現実から区別される想像上の状態
  9. 凡庸な人が不名誉な成功を達成する所の低い美徳。
  10. こけおどしの希望と見苦しい微笑が特徴である楽園主義者がのさばることによって、その観察者が確信することを強制される哲学
  11. 自分自身を相手に戦ったと想像した後の敵または敵対者の状態
  12. 偶然の結果を達成する最善の謗法について頭を悩ますこと。
  13. 動機の揺り籠であり良心の墓場。女性にはこれがない。従って女性は動機なしに行動し、良心は埋葬されないのでいつまでも生きながらえて他人の罪を告白し続ける。
  14. 保護と関与を行う軍隊の一種
  15. 最も歓迎すべき種類の偽善。
  16. 組織社会という建物の土台となっている泥の中に棲むうなぎ。その体をうごめかすとき尻尾が動いたのを建物が揺れ動いたと思い違える。Statesmanと比べると生きているだけ条件が不利である。
  17. 主義主張の仮装舞踏会での利害の衝突。私益のために国政を行うこと
  18. 贖罪の家または罪滅ぼしの礼拝堂で、懺悔用の道具が複数用意してある。それが一つしかない一夫一婦制とその点で区別される。
  19. 自分でも取るに足らないと認める嘆願者のために府中の全法則が廃棄されることを願うこと。
  20. 法律において、以前の決定、規則、慣習であり、明確に法規がない場合には、裁判官が欲するままに勝手な効力と権威を選ぶことができ、それによって裁判官としての仕事を大いに簡素化できるようになる。全てのことについて先例はあるので、裁判官は、自身の利害に反する先例は無視し、自分の欲求と一致する先例を強調しようとする。先例が発明されたことで、裁判は偶然に頼る試罪法という低い地位から自身で操作可能な裁定という高い地位まで高めることができるようになった。
  21. あるゆることは一定の計画に従って起こるという教説。この教説は宿命論と混乱してはならない。宿命論は全てが計画されているというものだが、この実現は必ず起こるというのではなく他の教説によって必然的に’そうならうと示唆されているに過ぎない。この違いは極めて大きく、流血はもとより、言論の洪水を起こしてきている。この二つの教説の区別を念頭において、その両方を’敬虔な気持ちで信じれは、神のお目こぼしによって地獄に起きないですむかも知れない。
  22. 言行一致が受ける報い
  23. 一つの物が他の物より良いという誤った信念から生じる感情。古代の哲学者が生は死と同様取るに足らないものだとの確信を解説した所、一人の弟子がそれではなぜ死んでしまわれないのですかと訪ねたので、曰く"死は、生と同様に取るに足らないものだからだ"と答えた。但し、死は生よりも長く続く。
  24. 歴史の早い時代および博物館に属すること。虚偽を永遠にするためのもっと前に起きたものとする技術および習慣。
  25. 主権者が非道を行い得る権利
  26. 医者が行う推量であって、患者への祟りを最小にするよう配慮しながら現状を長引かせるのには何が最適なのかの推量である。
  27. 少数のグループの中(だけでの)指導者格の人物。その国の圧倒的多数の人々は、その内のどの一人も大統領になってもらいたくないと考えていることはよく知られているが。
  28. 国際紛争の最終調停者。以前はこのような論争は、剣や槍など当時の初歩的な論理が提供する単純な議論を用いて、論争者同士の物理的な接触で解決されていた。軍事問題問題における慎重さが高まるにつれて、この発射体はますます期待されるようになり、現在では最も勇敢な人々によって高く評価されている。但しその最大の決定は、この推進時に個人の立会が必要なことである。
 
  1. Queen 女王;
    女王nǚwáng
  2. >devil
    Quill 羽ペン; 翎líng
    ; wield 巧みに使う
  3. Quotation 引用;
    引文yǐnwén
  1. A Woman by whom the realm is ruled when there is a king, and through whom it is ruled when there is not.
  2. An implemnet of torture yielded by a goose and commonly wielded by an ass. This use of the quill is now obsolete, but its modern equivanlent, the steel pen, is wielded by the same everlasting Presence.
  3. The act of repeating erroneously the words of another. the words erroneously repeated.
  1. 一国の統治を、国王がいるときはその人を通じて、いない時にはその人自身によって行う女性
  2. 鵞鳥が提供した責め道具で阿呆な連中によって巧みに使われる。この羽ペンは今ではすたれてしまい、現在では鉄ペンがその代わりになっているが、同じように永遠な存在(阿呆)によって使われている。
  3. 他人の言葉を誤って繰り返す行為。誤って繰り返された言葉。
 
  1. Radicalism 急進主義; 激进主义jījìn zhǔyì
  2. Railroad 鉄道;
    铁路tělù: with expedition 迅速に
  3. Ransom 身代金;
    赎金shújīn
  4. Rational 合理的;
    合理的hélǐde
  5. >devil
    Realism 写実主義; 现实主义xiànshí zhǔyì; depict 描写suffuse 満たす
  6. >devil
    Reality 現実;
    现实shiànshí;
    cupel 灰吹き皿;
    assay 分析する
  7. Reconciliation 和解; 和好hhéhǎo
  8. >devil Redemption 贖罪;
    救赎jiùshú; truce 休戦; deliverance 釈放
  9. Reflection 反省;
    深思shēnsī
  10. >devil
    Refusal 拒絶;
    拒绝jùjué; casuist 詭弁家
  11. Religion 宗教;
    宗教zōngjiào
  12. Republic 共和国;
    共和国gònghéguó
  13. Resigen 辞任;
    辞职cízhí
  14. Respirtor マスク;
    防毒面具fángdú miànjù
  15. Responsibility 責任; 负责fùzé
  16. Revelation 黙示録;
    启示qǐshì
  17. Reverence 崇敬;
    尊敬zūnjìng
  18. >devil
    Revolution 革命;
    革命gémìng:
    effusion 流出;
    mischance 災難;
  19. Riches 富;
    富有fuyǒu
  20. Right 権利;
    权力quánlì
  21. >devil
    Road 道路;
    道路daolù;
    futile 虚しい
  22. Rope 縄; 绳索shéngsuǒ
  23. Rumor 噂;
    谣言yáoyán



  1. The conservatism of to-morrow injected into the affairs of to-day.
  2. The chief of many mechanical devices enabling us to get away from where we are to where we are no better off. For this purpose the railroad is held in highest favor by the optimist, for it permits him to make the transit with great expedition.
  3. The purchase of that which neither belongs to the seller, nor can belong to the buyer. The most unprofitable of investments.
  4. Devoid of all delusions save those of observation, experience and reflection.
  5. The art of depicting nature as it is seen by toads. The charm suffusing a landscape painted by a mole, or a story written by a measuring worm.
  6. The dream of a mad philosopher. That which would remain in the cupel if one should assay a phantom. The nucleus of a vacuum.
  7. A suspension of hostilities. An armed truce for the purpose of digging up the dead.
  8. Deliverance of sinners from the penalty of their sin, through their murder of the deity against whom they sinned.
  9. An action of the mind whereby we obtain a clearer view of our relation to the things of yesterday and are able to avoid the perils that we shall not again encounter.
  10. Denial of something desired. Refusals are graded in a descending scale of finality thus: the refusal absolute, the refusal conditional, the refusal tentative and the refusal feminine. The last is called by some casuists the refusal assertive.
  11. A daughter of Hope and Fear, explaining to Ignorance the nature of the Unknowable.
  12. A nation in which, the thing governing and the thing governed being the same, there is only a permitted authority to enforce an optional obedience. In a republic, the foundation of public order is the ever lessening habit of submission inherited from ancestors who, being truly governed, submitted because they had to. They are as many kind of republics as there are graduations between the despotism whence they came and the anarchy whither they lead.
  13. To renounce an honor for an advantage. To renounce an advantage for a greater advantage.
  14. An apparatus fitted over the nose and mouth of an inhabitant of London, whereby to filter the visible universe in its passage to the lungs.
  15. A detachable burden easily shifted to the shoulders of God, Fate, Fortune, Luck or one's neighbor. In the days of astrology it was customary to unload it upon a star.
  16. A famous book in which st. John the Divine concealed all that he knew. The revealing is done by the commentators, who know nothing.
  17. The spiritual attitude of a man to a god and a dog to a man.
  18. In politics, an abrupt change in the form of misgovernment. Specifically, In American history, the substitution of the rule of an Administration for that of a Ministry, whereby the welfare and happiness of the people were advanced a full half-inch. Revolutions are usually accompanied by a considerable effusion of blood, but are accounted worth it - this appeasement being made by beneficiaries whose blood had not the mischance to be shed.
  19. A gift from Heaven signifying, "This is my beloved son, in whom I am well pleased." (John D. Rockefeller); The reward of toil and virtue. (J.P.Morgan); The savings of many in the hands of one. (Eugene Debs); To these excellent definitions the inspired lexicographers feels that he can add nothing of value.
  20. Legitimate authority to be, to do or to have; as the right to be a king, the right to do one's neighbor, the right to have measles, and the like. The first of these rights was once universally believed to be derived directly from the will of God; and this is still sometimes affirmed in partibus infidelium outside the enlightened realms of Democracy.
  21. A strip of land along which one may pass from where it is too tiresome to be to where it is futile to go.
  22. An obsolescent appliance for reminding assassins that they too are mortal. It is put about the neck and remains in place one's whole life long. It has been largely superseded by a more complex electrical device worn upon another part of the person; and this is rapidly giving place to an apparatus known as the preachment.
  23. A favorite weapon of the assassins of character.

 

  1. 今日の諸問題に注力した明日の保守主義
  2. 我々が現在の場所から変わり映えのしない場所へと移動を可能にする機械仕掛けの最たるもの。どの目的からいって鉄道は特に楽天主義の人気を博している。それは、移動を極めて迅速に可能にしてくれるからである。
  3. 売り手のものでも買い手のものでもないものを買い求めること。最も割の悪い投資。
  4. 観察・経験・反省以外の全ての妄想がない状態。
  5. ヒキガエルが見た通りに自然を描写する技術。モグラが描く風景にみなぎる魅力、もしくは尺取り虫の筆による物語。
  6. 気狂いの哲学者が見る夢。もし幽霊を分析するとはいざらに残るもの。急遽の核心をなるもの。
  7. 戦争行為の一時停止。戦死者の死体を掘り出すための武装休戦。
  8. 罪を犯した人が、その命に背いた神を殺害することによって、犯した罪の報いを免れること。
  9. 我々が自身と昨日の出来事との関係を一層明瞭に観察することで、再び出会わないような危険を避けることを可能するする心の働き。
  10. 臨んでいることを拒絶すること。拒絶には以下の順でその順番がある。絶対的拒絶、条件的拒絶、一時的拒絶、女性の拒絶。最後のそれは詭弁家によれば肯定的拒絶と呼ばれる。
  11. 希望と恐怖を両親とする娘であって、無知に対して不可知的なものの本質であると説明する娘。
  12. この国家は、統治するものと統治されるものがおなじなので、任意の服従を矯正する権威が与えられている。共和国では、公共の秩序の基礎は、先祖が実際に統治されていたのでやむなく服従していたという遺産であり、それは次第にすたれて行く習慣である。世の中にある共和国の種類は、そもそもの起源の先制主義か、いずれ行き着く無政府状態の2つの間の諸段階である。
  13. 利益のために名誉を放棄すること。さrにより大きな利益のために一つの利益を放棄すること。
  14. ロンドン市民の花と口を覆う装置で、それによって目に見える宇宙をフィルターを通して肺臓まで送り届ける。
  15. 自分の肩からの重荷を下ろして、神・運命・幸運・あるいは隣人へ容易に移すこと。占星術の時代には、星に肩代わりをしてもらうのが常だった。
  16. 使徒ヨハネは、自分の知っていることは全て隠してしまった有名な書物。この神の黙示録は何も知らない注釈者によって行われた。
  17. 人間の神に対する、また犬の人間に対する精神的態度
  18. 政治において、悪性という形をとって現れる急激な変化。特に、米国史において、英国流の内閣の統治を米国流の大統領制によって置き換え、その結果国民の福祉は幸福が半インチほど進展したことを指していう。革命は通常、大量の流血を伴うが、それだけの価値は十分にあるとされる。但し、そのように評価するのは、自らの血を流すような災難に見舞われず利益だけを享受する人に限られる。
  19. "神から授かったもので'心からの満足を覚えている最愛の我が子'を意味する" (John D. Rockefeller); "辛苦と徳行に対する報酬" (J.P. Morgan) ; "一人の手に帰した多数の貯蓄" (Eugen Debs, 米国労働運動指導者); これらの優れた定義に対し、感銘した本辞典の編者はこれ以上の価値ある定義を追加することで出来ない。
  20. ある存在、ある行動、ある所有することの正当な権能。例えば、国王であること、隣人を騙す権利、はしかにかかる権利などという具合である。これらの権利の内、最初のものは、神の意志に直接依頼するものであるとかつては広く信じられていた。これは、民主主義の行われている文明国以外のカトリック教でいう異教国では、今日でも未だそのように主張されている。
  21. 細長い土地で、人はそこを通ることによって、退屈を感じる場所から、結局徒労に過ぎない所へ行くことができる。
  22. 暗殺者たちに彼らもまた死を免れないことを思い出される今日はで使われなくなった用具。それは首に巻きつけられ、生涯そこから離れることができない。それはより複雑な電気仕掛けの道具に代替されたが、その仕掛けも、今や急速に、説教という名の装置にその地位を譲り始めている。
  23. 人の評判を抹殺しようとして好んで使われる武器

 

 
  1. Sauce ソース;
    调味汁tiáowèizhī
  2. Self-Esteem: 自尊; 自尊zìzūn
  3. Self-Evident 自明;
    自明之理zìmíng
  4. Selfish 我儘;
    自私的zìsīde
  5. >devil
    Success 成功;
    成功chénggōng;
    infallible 確実な
  6. >devil Suffrage 投票権
    ;选举权xuǎnjǔquá
    incivism 愛国心欠如
  7. >devil Sycophant: 追従者; 阿谀奉承ēyú fèngchéng
  1. The one infallible sign of civilization and enlightenment. A people with no sauces has one thousand vices; a people with one sauce has only nine hundred and ninety-nine. For every sauce invented and accepted a vice is renounced and forgiven.
  2. An erroneous appeasement.
  3. Evident to one's self and to nobody else.
  4. Devoid of consideration for the selfishness of others.
  5. The one unpardonable sin against one's fellows.
  6. Expression of opinion by means of a ballot. The right of suffrage (which is held to be both a privilege and a duty) means, as commonly interpreted, the right to vote or the man of another man's choice, and is highly prized. Refusal to do so has the bad name of "incivism."
  7. One who approaches Greatness on his belly so that he may not be commanded to turn and be kicked. He is sometimes an editor.

 

  1. 文明と啓蒙の確実な印。ソースを一つももたない国民は1000種類の悪徳を持つのに対し、一つのソースをもつ黒紋は999種類の悪徳をもつ。ソースが一種類発明される毎に、悪徳は一種類ずつ棄て去られ許される。
  2. 誤った自己評価
  3. 他の全ての者を除き、自分自身にとってのみ明白なこと
  4. 他人のわがままに対して思いやりを欠いた状態
  5. 自分の同輩に対するただ一つの許すべからざる罪
  6. 投票を通じた意思表示。投票権 (これは特権でもあり義務でもあるとされる)世間一般の解釈では、他人の選出した人物にたいして賛成投票を行う権利で、高い評価を与えられている。この権利行使を行わないと公民としての義務を怠る者として汚名を着せられる。
  7. お偉方に腹這いになって近づく輩で、そうすることで後ろ向けと目入れされ足蹴にされないようにする。彼は時には編集者でもある。
 
  1. >devil
    Tail 尻尾; 尾wěi
    ; privation 剥奪
    ; foetal=fetal 胎児
  2. Talk 話す; 谈话tánhuà; indiscretion 無分別・軽率
  3. Tariff 関税;
    关税guānshuì
  4. Telephone 電話;
    电话diànhuà;
    abrogate やめる;
  5. Telescope 望遠鏡;
    望远镜wàngyuǎn jìng; plague 悩ます
  1. The part of an animal's spine that has transcended its natural limitations to set up an independent existence in a world of its own. Excepting in its foetal state, Man is without a tail, a privation of which he attests an hereditary and uneasy consciousness by the coat-skirt of the male and the train of the female, and by a marked tendency to ornament that part of this attire where the tail should be, and indubitably once was. This tendency is most observable in the female of the species, in whom the ancestral sense is strong and persistent.
  2. To commit an indiscretion without temptation, from an impulse without purpose.
  3. A scale of taxes on imports, designed to protect the domestic producer against the greed of his consumer.
  4. An invention of the devil which abrogates some of the advantages of making a disagreeable person keep his distance.
  5. A device having a relation to the eye similar to that of the telephone to the ear, enabling distant objects to plague us with a multitude of needless details. Luckily it is unprovided with a bell summoning us to the sacrifice.
  1. 動物の背骨の一部分で、自然の限界を超えて独立の存在としてそれ自身の世界を確立した箇所。胎児の時期は別として、人類には尻尾がないが、それがなくなったことを遺伝的に不安を感じてきており、男は上着の裾、女は衣服の裾を特に意識しており、尻尾があるべき場所を飾り立てるという顕著な傾向を示す。この傾向は、女の裾の場合の方が特に観察できて、先祖伝来の感覚が強く頑固に意識される。
  2. 無目的に衝動にかられて、誘惑もないのに無分別をしてしまうこと。
  3. 輸入品に対する一定の税金のことで、自国の消費者の貪欲さから自国の生産者を保護することを目的とする。
  4. 気に食わない奴を遠ざけようとする便宜の一部をやめるような悪魔の発明品
  5. 耳に対する電話のように、目に対する発明品で、遠方の事物を、必要でない詳細な程度まで見えるようにして我々を悩ます仕掛け。但し、我々の犠牲を強いるようなベルはついていないのは幸いである。
 
 
 
 

 
 
 

>Top 101 Preposition "on" and "off" :

106

Preposition 'on' (前置詞 on)

Preposition 'off' (前置詞 off)

  1. の上に:
    1. sit on a chair
    2. fall on the floor.
    3. Vegetarian dishes on the menu
  2. 付着・着用:
    1. a fly on the ceiling
    2. apples on the tree 木になっている
    3. spread the butter on both sides of the bread パンの両面
    4. a ring on my finger 身につける
    5. The dress looks good on you. よく似合う
    6. Do you have a match on you. 持ち合わせているか
  3. 位置・近接:
    1. sit on my left 左隣
    2. a village on the river 川沿い
    3. hit my head on the door ドアにぶつける
    4. We're coming on the intersection soon. もうすぐ交差点
    5. I'll contact you on my return. 帰り次第すぐ
    6. There's a water supply on the island. 水の供給がある
  4. 日・時間・重量・価格:
    1. on my birthday
    2. It's just on five o'clock.
    3. on the evening of the fifth of May
    4. on and after March 1. 以降
  5. 支点・軸
    1. stand on tiptoe つま先立つ
    2. fall on one's knees ひざまづく
    3. be on one's back/face あおむけ、うつぶせ
    4. This toothbrush runs on electricity.
  6. 同時に:
    1. He called me on his arrival at the office. 着くやいなや
    2. Further details will be sent on request.
    3. A doctor on call. すぐ来てくれる医者
    4. on receipt of the money 受領次第
    5. pay the bill on leaving 帰る時に支払う
    6. On arriving at the door, she opened it soundlessly. ドアの所に着くと
  7. 比喩的接触→根拠・条件:
    1. on principle 主義として
    2. on oath [óuθ] 誓って
    3. on the grounds of youth 若さゆえに
    4. make a decision based on cost alone. コストだけで
    5. accept the offer on her advice. 忠告に基づいて
    6. on one condition 一つ条件付きで
  8. 交通・手段:
    1. go on a bicycle; on foot 自転車で
    2. watch the game on televisionTVで試合を観る
    3. speak on the phone 電話で
    4. I cut my hand on a piece of glass. [with は故意的] ガラスの破片で
  9. 所属:
    1. She is on NY Times. 働いている
    2. on the list リスト掲載
    3. He is on the team. チームの一員
  10. 従事・状態・...中
    1. on sale; on the job; on a strike; on the way to school
    2. on the quiet ひそかに
    3. These bags are no longer on sale. 売り切れ
    4. The house is on fire. 延焼中
    5. The meeting is still on. 継続中
    6. Crimes are on the increase. 増加中
    7. What's on tonight. 今夜のTVは
    8. He's on heroin. 麻薬中毒
    9. He's on errand. 使いに行く
  11. に関して: concerning
    1. a book on birds 鳥に関する本
    2. Congratulations on your success! 成功おめでとう
  12. 動作の対象
    1. creep on the fort 忍び寄る
    2. pity on the poor 貧者を憐れむ
    3. The fortune smiled on us. 運が向いてきた
    4. spend much money on books. 本に沢山のお金を使う
    5. Buy two or more and you’ll save £1 on each.
    6. I’m keen on swimming.
  13. 不利益
    1. hang up on him. 一方的に電話を切る
    2. The joke is on me. 私への当てつけ
    3. She shut the door on me. 鼻先でドアをバタンと閉める
    4. It rained on us. 降られて困った
    5. His wife caught a flu on him. 風邪引かれて困った
  14. 負担
    1. Have a drink on me. 私のおごりで
  1. 離脱:
    1. I’ll get off the bus at the next stop.
    2. The station is far off
    3. The cover has come off my book.
    4. Keep off the grass. 芝生に入るな
    5. My house stands off the main road. 大通りからちょっと入った所
    6. wipe off the mud off my hands. 手についた泥を落とす
  2. 出発・立ち去る
    1. run off 走り去る
    2. start off on a trip 旅行にでかける
    3. Well, I'll off. さあ出かけるよ
    4. We must be off now. もうお暇しなければ
  3. 分離・解放
    1. kick off my shoes. 脱ぎ捨てる
    2. lay off the worker. 一時解雇
    3. These stains will come off. しみは取れる
    4. The police blocked off all side streets. 柵で封鎖
  4. 休止・停止:
    1. Will you turn off the TV?
    2. The electricity has been off for two hours.
    3. He is off every Wednesday.
  5. 低下・減少:
    1. I’m off liquor recently. 飲酒を控える
    2. I bought this sweater at 30% off.
    3. The population is dying off. 死亡により人口減少
    4. dose off まどろむ
    5. This milk has gone off. もう傷んでいる
  6. 強調:
    1. I’ve paid off the all debts. 借金返済
    2. Please wipe/clear off the table for us. きれいに片付ける
    3. I’ll finish off the work until the noon. 仕事を仕上げる
  7. ♦熟語
    1. It rained on and off. 降ったり止んだり

 

>Top 101.2 Preposition 'in' and 'out":

107

Preposition 'in" (前置詞 in)

Preposition 'out' (前置詞 out)

  1. の中に (位置):
    1. in the house; in London;in Italy
    2. sit in the sun; walk in the rain
  2. の中へ(移動) =into:
    1. get in the car; in my pocket. 乗り込む
    2. A frog jumped in/into the pond. 飛び込む
  3. 着用
    1. a girl in a fur coat 毛皮を着た
    2. in slippers; in red; in rags
  4. 従事・所属
    1. be in business; be in politics 携わる
    2. He is in TV. テレビ関係の仕事; on TV テレビ出演
    3. You should be careful in/while crossing the street. 道路を渡る時は
  5. 期間、の間に
    1. Hong Kong was restored to China in 1997. に
    2. wake up in/during the night 夜中に
    3. in my youth 若い頃
    4. The job will be completed in a week. ; Cf. I met Mary after a week. (過去の一点から)一週間してから
  6. 能力の範囲
    1. in my sight 視界内に
    2. in my experience 経験では
    3. There is something in what you say. 君の言うことには一理ある
  7. 分野・限定 ...の点では
    1. in this respect
    2. in my opinion
    3. a change in weather
    4. He is lacking in courage. 勇気に欠ける
    5. an expert in international politics 国際政治分野の
  8. の内で (比率・割合):
    1. in five; in a hundred
    2. the longest river in the world
  9. を使って (材料・手段):
    1. model in clay; draw in pencil
    2. speak in French
  10. ...の風で (方法・様態):
    1. in haste; in secret
    2. in a careless manner -carelessly
    3. write it in shorthand 速記で書く
  11. 形状・配置・順序
    1. The children go to school in groups. 集団登校
    2. in alphabetical order 順で
    3. a novel in three parts 3部からなる
  12. 計量・単位
    1. in large quantities 多量に
    2. in twos and threes 三々五々
  13. という (同格関係):
    1. have found a friend in Mary
  14. 状況・原因・理由
    1. in self-defense 自己防衛のために
    2. say in conclusion 最後に一言
    3. They are in love.; 愛し合っている状況
    4. She said nothing in reply 無言で返す
  15. ♦熟語
    1. High income tax is not good in that it may discourage from working harder. という点で
    2. We are in for rain. 雨に会いそうだ
    3. I was in on her plan 計画に加担している
    4. She is constantly in and out of the hospital 繰り返している
    5. know all the ins and outs of legal procedures. 一部始終
  1. 1.外へ:
    1. go out for a walk
    2. Throw the rabbish out.
    3. dine out at a sushi bar 寿司へいく
    4. Get out from here!
    5. He is out in China. 漠然と位置→具体的場所
    6. an out door 外開きドア
  2. 離れて:
    1. My shoulder is out. 肩がはずれた
    2. I was out in my calculators. 計算が間違った
    3. The clock is five minutes out. 5分狂っている
    4. The boat is 100km out in the sea 沖合
    5. They fell out. 仲違い
  3. 状態・機能を失って
    1. She passed out at the sight of blood. 血を見て失神
    2. The road is out because of the flood. 不通
  4. 消えて、失って、混乱して
    1. turn the lights out [off] 消灯
    2. The copyright is out. 版権が切れた
    3. The concert tickets are sold out. 売り切れ
    4. They washed all the stains out. しみを洗い出す
  5. 伸びて、突き出て、広がって:
    1. stretch out my hand 片手を差し出す
    2. let/set out new good. 新商品を並べる
    3. His chin is out. 突き出ている
  6. 選びだして:
    1. look out for genuine jewelry. 見分ける
    2. leave a word out 語を省く
    3. rent out rooms 部屋を賃貸しする
  7. 脱出、追い出して:
    1. There is no easy way of out. 出口
    2. vote this government out. 政権を失う
  8. すっかり、完全に:
    1. fill out the application form
    2. work out the answers without any hints. 問題を解く
    3. Spell you name out, please.
    4. clean out the room すっかり掃除
    5. I'm tired out. 疲れ切った
  9. 現れて、事が起こった
    1. The moon will come out soon. 月が出る
    2. Flowers came out. 花が咲いた
    3. The rash is out all over him. (rash: 発疹)
    4. Riots broke out. 勃発した
    5. We suddenly burst out laughing.
  10. 公になって:
    1. The secret was out. 暴露
    2. Her book has just come out. 出版された所
  11. 大声で
    1. shout out; call out
    2. tell him right out. 思っていることをはっきり言う
  12. ♦熟語
    1. The tiger got out of its cage. 中から外へ; ⇔into
      1. Put the medicine out of the children's reach. 手の届かない所
      2. out of danger 危機を脱して
      3. He cheated us out of our money. 金を巻き上げた
    2. She'll go all out to win support. やっきになる
    3. an out and out fool 全くの
 

>Top 101.4 Preposition 'for' and 'with':

108

Preposition 'for' (前置詞 for)

Preposition 'to' (前置詞 to)

  1. 目標の対象、宛の: having as a destination
    1. There's a phone call for you. あなた宛
    2. I bought a new dress for her. 彼女に
    3. the train for London 行きの電車
    4. dash for the door ドアに向かって
    5. What is this used for? 何のために
  2. 準備、備えて
    1. prepare for an examination 備えて
    2. get ready for supper 夕食の準備
  3. 支持・賛成、に味方して:
    1. vote for a measure 議案に賛成
    2. Are you for or against the proposal? 賛成か反対か
  4. 代理・代表、に代わって:
    1. speak for the accused 被告に代わって
    2. the member for Manchester 選出の
    3. What's the word for ship in Spanish? スペイン語では
  5. 交換・報酬
    1. a check for £20
    2. reward him for his services 報酬を与える
  6. 資格・特性, として(as)
    1. use coal for fuel
    2. Do you take me for a fool? バカだと思っているのか
    3. They chose him for their leader.
  7. 原因・理由・結果
    1. for this reason この理由で
    2. shout for joy 嬉しさの余り
    3. a city known for its beauty 美しさで知られた
    4. I could hardly see for a thick mist. 霧で見えない
  8. にも関わらず=in spite of
    1. For all his skill, he has achieved very little. 腕が立つのに
  9. 関連, に関して
    1. Walking is good for your health. 健康によい
    2. For further details, see the page ... 詳しくは
    3. I don’t know, and for that matter, I don’t care. その件については
  10. 適否, ふさわしい
    1. a dress for the occasion ふさわしい服
    2. He is the right man for the job 適任
  11. 観点・基準
    1. It's too early for supper. 夕食には早すぎる
    2. For a foreigner, he speaks good Japanese. にしては
  12. 期間・距離
    1. stay there for three weeks
    2. walk for five miles
  13. ♦熟語
    1. You'll be all/in for it when your mother comes home. 帰ってきたらしかられる
  1. 目標の対象、宛の: expressing motion in the direction of
    1. fight to the last. 到達点:
    2. be frozen to detah
    3. There must be a solution to this problem. 問題に対して
    4. He stood with his back to the wall.
  2. まで
    1. I'll be there from Monday to Thursday inclusive. (=through Thusday
  3. 付属
    1. the key to the door. ドアの鍵
  4. なるまで
    1. What the world coming to. どうなっていく
  5. 対比
    1. 2 is to 6 as 5 is to 15.
    2. It's 100 to 1 he'll lose.
    3. There are about sixty people to the square kilometer in this region.
    4. To my surprise, Tom failed the entrance examinaton.
  6. ♦熟語
    1. The band did an encore, to the delight of the crowd
    2. I'm surprised to hear that []
>HP Key Idiom
>HP 100 rules idiom

 

>Top 101.6 Preposition 'up' and 'down':

109

Preposition 'up' (前置詞 up)

Preposition 'down' (前置詞 down)

  1. 高い方へ, 上の方へ; towards a higher place or position
    1. Some sparks flew up.
    2. She live five floors up.
    3. They live up north.
    4. Prices are going up.
  2. 話し手の方へ
    1. He came right up to me and held out his hand.
    2. When are you going up to London.
  3. 活気づいて
    1. The campfiure flared up and kids cheered. 燃え上がって
  4. すっかり、完全に
    1. The pond dried up. 干上がる
  5. 話題にのぼって
    1. The proposal came up last week. 持ち出された
  6. それ以上の
    1. people of sixty-five and up. 65歳以上の人
  7. ♦熟語
    1. stand up against the window もたれて立つ
    2. He was strolling up and down in the large garden. 行ったり来たり
    3. She was here up until last month. 先月まで
    4. Up with you. 支持する
    5. up and around 病人が元気になって歩き回る
    6. They walked up the road. に沿って
    7. The house is up for sale. 売りにでている
    8. What's up with...? ...はどうしたのい
    9. I have gone through the ups and downs of life. 浮き沈み
  1. 低い方へ, 下に; towards or in a lower place:
    1. The sun is going down.
    2. We sailed down toward the sea in a small boat
    3. I traveled as far down as Chile.
    4. Count from 100 down to 20.
    5. His reports were accurate down to the smallest detail. 細部に至るまで正確
    6. Eggs are a bit down from last week. 少し値下がり
  2. 弱まって
    1. The wind had died down.
    2. The fire is burning down.
    3. The government put down the strike.
    4. vote down the budget.
    5. He was down after losing his girlfriend.
    6. One down and two to go. ワンアウトであと2人だ。
  3. 即金で、本気で
    1. pay down
    2. gulp down the beer
    3. wash the car down すっかり車を洗う
  4. ♦熟語
    1. I'm down to may last ten dollars. 10ドルしか残っていない
    2. down a gloss of beer in one gulp 一気に飲み干す (v)
    3. Down in front, please. 前の人は頭を下げて
    4. Down, Rover! お座り
    5. down under: 豪州やニュージーランドへ 
    6. down through the year 期間ずっと
    7. Kick the can down the road. 路上へ缶を蹴れ→(米議会の債務上限問題など) 問題の先送り
 

>Top 102. Preposition & Time Recognition:

110

Preposition & Time recognition (前置詞と時間認識)

 

>Top 102.1 Metaphor, Simile, etc:

111

Metaphor & Simile, etc. (隠喩と直喩など)

 

 

 
  1. Metaphor [métəfɔːr] 隠喩: representative or symbolic of something <G. mtaphora; meta=after, 後・超・変+ pherein=transfer; like, as, ...のような
    1. 言語表現を経済的に用いることで、別の概念を連想・想起させる[月見うどん]
      1. I'll pick you up in 10 minutes.; 拾い上げのmetaphor
      2. He is in love.; 心理状態を容器に
    2. Life is a journey.; Time is money; The employees are family.; The network is a web.
    3. The city is a jungle.
    4. kill two birds with one stone.
  2. Simile [símli] 直喩; <L. similis =like, similar
    1. like, asを用いて他のものと比較する
      1. His heart is like stone. 心は石のよう
      2. He is as brave as a lion. ライオンのように勇敢
  3. Metonymy [mitɑ́nəmi] 換喩; <meta +onoma=name
    1. 属性や密接な関係の者を用いた表現 [crown→king; bottle→drink, wine]
      1. from the cradle to the grave
      2. Have you done the dishes?
  4. Synecdoche [sinékdəki] 代喩・提喩; <G. syn 同時・似た+ take up, receive =understand with another
    1. 一部⇔全体を、特殊⇔一で表す表現[sail⇔ship; the White House⇔the President]
      1. Why not have a coffee at the shop.
      2. Could you xerox this document, please?
      3. Why don't you google it?
  5. 文法 = Dynamic Usage-Based Model; 具体的な言語表現の集大成→文法スキーマ (文法ルール) は、何度も使われ慣習化した表現として帰納的推論で立ち上がってくる。
 
 

>Top 102.2 Juxtaposition:

110

Juxtaposition (並置)

(X・Y)のように2要素が並置された場合の意味:


  1. X be Y:
    1. You okay?
    2. Mr. Washington, a regular customer at the Crossroad Café, called me this morning.
    3. [SVC] S=C; パターンの変化
      1. I saw Jack angry. [SVC] →Jackが起こっている状態
      2. I saw Jack in the convenience store. →Jackがコンビニにいる状態
      3. I saw Jack studying in the library. →Jackが図書館で勉強している状態
      4. I saw Jack attacked by a dog. →Jackが犬に襲われる状態
      5. I saw Jack leave just a few minutes ago. →Jackが数分前に出かけた状態
    4. 並列表現でも、段々主観性が下がっていくイメージ:
      1. I found this book interesting. [SVOC] O is C → 直感的に、この本は有益だと思った。
      2. I found this book to be informative. → (toはある場所に向かい到達する) 少し考えた結果、この本は有益だ
      3. I found that this book is informative. →(目的節が時制をもつ) 評判のように事実として、この本が有益だ
    5. 並列表現での意味の違い:
      1. I heard someone scream. →誰かが叫ぶ状況を直接耳にした
      2. I heard (that) someone screamed. →誰かが叫んだということを情報として別の誰かから聞いた。
        (=I heard the information that someone screamed from someone else.)

  2. X have Y:
    1. I bought Shelly this key ring. [SVOO] O have C
    2. 上記1. はどちらが適切か
      1. I bought this key ring for Shelly, but I decided to keep it. (forは目的に向かうイメージ; 到達は含意されないので、自分が保管していることはあり得る。
      2. I bought Shelly this key ring, but I decided to keep it. (並置から、Shell has this key ring. が含意されるので、すでにShellyのものになったのを、後半で保管していることは矛盾)
    3. Direct O は移動可能か;
      1. She always give me a headache. 彼女にはいつも悩ませられる。
      2. ✕ She always gives a headache to me. (頭痛は、移動しない)
    4. X have Y: SVOOの拡張事例:
      1. I'll buy you a drink. 飲み物をおごるよ。(Oはその場で発生)
      2. John promised Mary a new car. (将来的にMary has a new car.)
      3. I owe you 600 yen for the lunch. (借りを作る=have to pay back) I owe 600 yen to you ...
        1. How much do I owe you? (=How much is it?)の丁寧な言い方
        2. I owe you one. (=Thank you) 一つ(a favor) 借りができた。
        3. I owe you an explanation. 謝罪や釈明をしなければならない。
      4. save [X Y] XがYにかかわる恩恵を受ける
        1. A direct flight will save you several hours, though it's more expensive. 時間が稼げる
        2. Hiring a tax account will save you a lot of time and trouble. 時間と手間が省ける
      5. spare [X Y] 何かをどこかから取っておく
        1. Could you spare me a few minutes? 私にあなたの数分の時間をspareしてくれますか?
        2. You can spare me the details. Just give me the big picture. 細かい点はいいから、全体像を聞かせて
      6. stand [X Y]
        1. I'll stand you lunch. →you have lunchという状況を私が支える(stand)→昼食をおごる

  3. with +X・Y: これもX be Y
    1. I can't feel relaxed with you monitoring everything I'm doing! →You are monitoring everything I'm doingという状況にあっては、落ち着けない。
    2. With Shelly gone, things aren't quite the same. →Shelly is goneという状況にあっては、....
    3. Do you think it's okay for students to attend class with their caps on? → 授業中にcaps on (their heads)mの状態で授業に出席すること

  4. X be Y か X have Y はどう決まるか:
    1. 言語は、話し手の言語を手がかり(参照点)として、語彙・文法・背景・文脈に基づいて推論する。(曖昧性は残る)
      1. I'll make you a hat.; You have a hat.と解釈→帽子を作ってあげる
      2. I'll make you a hat.; You are a hat. と解釈→(魔法使いが) お前を帽子にするぞ。
      3. I'll make you coffee. →X have Y; coffeeをhaveする状態にする→コーヒーを入れる
      4. I'll make you happy. →X is Y; happyな状態にする→幸せにする
      5. I'll drive you home. → X is Y; you are homeの状況を作る→車で送っていく
      6. Bob sneezed the bill off the table. →X is Y; the bill is off the tableの状態になる→くしゃみで伝票を飛ばした
      7. I'll walk you home. →X is Y; you are homeの状況を作る→歩いて送っていく
      8. I'll walk you out. →X is Y; you are outの状況を作る→(守衛などが)歩いて外まで案内する
 
 

>Top 102.4 Oxymoron:

111

Oxymoron (矛盾語法)

 
  1. Our world is full of contradiction, oddness, singularity, paralogium, or non causa pro causa, or even philosophism of infallibility. [paralogium =偽推理; non causa pro causa =causal fallacy, 因果誤謬; philosophism 詭弁; infallibility 不謬]
    1. History of science has been battles against these errors, or finding another solution-like error which would be more difficult to solve.
  2. A figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction.; <G. xus=sharp+ moros=foolish
    1. make haste slowly
    2. Connecticut state
    3. an open-secret
    4. countless number: too many to be counted
    5. spaceless:
    6. accentless:
    7. a young-old man: 65-74
    8. timeless: not affected by the passage of time
    9. wise fool: =wisdom of the fool; a fool comes to be seen s a bearer of wisdom (through blind faith, reckless desire, hopeless romance, and wild abandon, etc.
    10. chaordic: chaos+orderly
    11. silent voice:
    12. Cable & Wireless
    13. bittersweet: sweet with a bitter aftertaste
    14. liquid crystal
    15. liquid gas
    16. paperless document
    17. same difference: two or more things are essentially the same
    18. error of infallibility: No one is infallible.
    19. possibility of impossibility:
    20. even odds; =even chances of odds:
    21. odd and even:
    22. ten dollars odd: ten dollars and a bit
    23. wear an odd pair of socks:
    24. He is even odd person: odd person=strange person
    25. reality of imaginary numbers
    26. be doubtful accuracy; accurate doubt
    27. mixture of black and white
 
>HP Oxymoron

>Top 102.5 Palindrome:

112

Palindrome (回文)

 
  1. Aibohphobia: [Aibo is the first name of AI robot dog made by SONY in 1999.]
    1. dad; mom; madam; noon; deed; civic; eye; kayak; refer; level; wow; peep; radar; racecar;
    2. Eve; Bob; Elle; Otto; Anna; Hanah; Akasaka; ABBA
    3. KBK
  2. Able was I ere I saw Elba. [ere=before]
  3. A man, a plan, a canal: Panama.
  4. A Santa at NASA.
  5. A Toyota! Race fast, safe car! A Toyota!
  6. Borrow or rob?
  7. Cigar? Toss it in a can. It is so tragic.
  8. Dammit, I'm mad!
  9. Desserts, I stressed.
  10. Devil never even lived.
  11. Doc: note, I dissent. A fast never prevents a fatness. I diret on cod.
  12. Dogma: I am God.
  13. Don’t nod.
  14. Gate man sees name, garage man sees name tag.
  15. I prefer pi. / Never odd or even.
  16. Laminated ET animal!
  17. Live not on evil.
  18. Ma is as selfless as I am.
  19. Madam in Eden, I’m Adam. (– Eve.)
  20. Maps, DNA, and spam.
  21. Mom, Dad, sis - I'm not like you - I'm not a palindrome.
  22. Murder for a jar of Redrum.
  23. Mr. Owl ate my metal worm.
  24. Murer for a jar of red rum.
  25. Must sell at tallest sum.
  26. Name now one man.
  27. Niagara, O roar again!
  28. No lemon, no melon.
  29. No, it is opposition.
  30. No, it never propagates if I set a gap or prevention.
  31. No, Sir, panic is a basic in a prison.
  32. Norma is as selfless as I am, Ron.
  33. Not New York. Roy went on.
  34. NOW NO SWIMS ON MON
  35. Nurses run.
  36. On a clover, if alive, erupts a vast, pure evil; a fire volcano.
  37. Panda had a nap.
  38. Pull up, if I pull up.
  39. Rats live on no evil star.
  40. Saw tide rose? So red it was.
  41. Some men interpret nine memos.
  42. Step on no pets.
  43. Star comedy by Democrats.
  44. Too bad - I hid a boot.
  45. Tuna roll or a nut?
  46. Was it a bar or a bat I saw?
  47. Was it a cat I saw? / Was it a rat I saw?
  48. Won’t it now?
  49. Wonders in Italy, Latin is red now.
  50. Won’t lovers revolt now?
  51. Wonton? Not now.
  52. Zeus was deified, saw Suez.
 
>HP Palindrome

>Top 103 Common words of etymology:

113

Common Words of Etymology (語根の共通語)

  1. acess
  2. act
  3. arrive
  4. attract
  1. access <L. accedere =approach; ceder =go, yield; 进入jìnrù; <cess =go
    1. accessory: a thing which can be added in order to make it more useful, versatile; 附件fùjiàn, 装饰zhuānshì
    2. recess: suspend its proceedings for a period of time; 休憩; 暂停zàntíng, 休会xiūhuì
    3. ancestor: a person, typically one more remote than a grandparent; 祖先zǔxiān
    4. predecessor: a person who held a job before the current holder; 前任qiánrèn
  2. act <L. actus =event, thing done; 行为xíngwéi, 法案fǎàn
    1. actual: existing in fact, real; existing now; 实际的shíjì, 真实的zhēnshí;
    2. react: act in response to sth; 反应fǎnyìng, 应对yìngduì; ¶react against oppression
    3. interact; act in such a way as to have an effect on each other. 交流jiāoliú; 相互作用xiānghù zuòyòng
    4. exact: accurate and careful about minor details.; 厳密, 綿密; 确切的quèqiè, 准确的zhǔnquè
  3. arrive <L. ad=to + ripa=shore <riv =river bank; 到达daodá
    1. derive: have a specified word as a root or origin; 起源于qǐyuán yú, 源自yuánzì, 衍生yǎnshēng
    2. river: a large natural stream of water flowing to the sea; 河流héliú, 涌流yǒngliú
    3. rival: a person or thing competing with another for the same objective; 竞争对手jìngzhēng duìshǒu
  4. attract <tract =pull <L. trahere =draw
    1. attract: cause to come to a place or participate; 吸引xīyǐn, 引起yǐnqǐ
    2. contract: crease in size, number; enter into formal agreement; 收缩shōusuō, 减少jiǎnshǎo, 订合同dìng hétong
    3. extract: remove or take out by effort; obtain from sth; 取出qǔchū, 获得huòdé
    4. distract: prevent sb from concentrating on sth; divert attention; 分心fēnxīn, 转移zhǎnyí
    5. subtract: take away a number/amount from another; 减去jiǎnqù, 去除qùchú
    6. abstract: existing in thought but not having a physical existence; 抽象的chōuxiàng; 理论上lǐlùn shang
    7. tractor: a powerful motor vehicle used on farms for hauling equipment; 拖拉机tuōlājī
 

 

114
  1. auto
  2. bankrupt
  3. cap
  4. capture
  5. cent
  1. auto =one's own; by oneself or automatic; <G. autos =self
    1. automobile: a car; 汽车qìchē
    2. automatic: working by itself with no direct human control; 自动的ìdòngde; 无意识的wúyìshí
    3. automation: use of automatic equipment in a manufacturing; 自动化zìdònghuà
    4. autonomy: the right or condition of self-government; 自治zìzhì, 自主zìzhǔ
  2. rupt =broken <L. rumpere =break
    1. bankrupt: declared in law as unable to pay debts; 破产的pòchǎn
    2. abrupt: sudden and unexpected; 突然的tūrán, 意外的yìwài
    3. corrupt: having a willingness to act dishonestly in return for money; 腐败的fǔbài
    4. disrupt: interrupt activity by causing a disturbance or problem; 中断zhōngduàn, 扰乱rǎoluàn
    5. erupt: (volcano) become active and eject lava, ash and gas; break out suddenly; 喷发pēnfā, 爆发bàofā
    6. interrupt: stop continuous progress of an activity; 暂停zàntíng, 中断zhōngduàn
    7. rupture:断绝duànjué, 破裂pòliè
  3. cap =head <L. caput =head
    1. cap: a kind of soft, flat hat without a brim and typically with a peak; 便帽biànmào
    2. capital: the city or town that functions as the seat of government; 首都shǒudū, 首府shǒufǔ
    3. captain: the person in command of a ship or aircraft; 船长chuánzhǎng, 机长jīzhǎng, 队长duìzhǎng
    4. cape: a headland or promontory; 海角hǎijiǎo, 岬角jiǎjiǎo
    5. chapter: a main division of a book; 章zhāng
  4. cap =seize <L. capere =take, seize
    1. capture: take into one's possession or control by force; 捕获bǔhuò, 夺取duóqǔ
    2. captive: imprisoned or confined; controlled by; 俘虏fúlǔ, 垄断lǒnduàn
    3. capable: having the ability, or quality necessary to do; 能干的nénggàn, 可能的kěnéng
    4. capacity: maximum amount that sth can contain; 容纳的能力róngnà nénlì
    5. caption: a title or brief explanation accompanying an illustration; 标题biāotí, 字幕zìmù
  5. cent =hundred
    1. cent: a monetary unit equal to one hundredth of a dollar; 分fēn
    2. century: a period of one hundred years; 世纪shìjì
    3. centimeter: a metric unit of length, equal to one hundredth of a metre; 厘米límǐ
    4. centigrade: =Celsius scale of temperature
    5. centennial: relating to a hundred anniversary; 一百周年纪念yībǎi zhōunián jìniàn
    6. percent: by a specified amount in every hundred; 百分之bǎifēn zhī
 
  115
  1. circle
  2. close
  3. contain
  4. correct
  5. count
  1. circ =circle
    1. circle: a round plane figure whose boundary consists of points equidistant from a fixed point; 圆yuán
    2. circumstance: enclosing boundary of a curved geometric figure; 圆周yuánzhōu
    3. circuit: a roughly circular line, route that starts and finishes at the same place; 环道huándào, 电路diànlù
    4. circulate: move continuously through a closed system or area; 循环xúnhuán, 传播chuánbō
    5. circus: a travelling company of acrobats, clowns & other entertainers in a large tent.; 马戏mǎxì
    6. circumvent: find a way around an obstacle; 规避guībì, 绕过ràoguò
    7. circumference: enclosing boundary of a curved
    8. encircle: form a circle around, surround; 围绕wéirào
  2. close =shut <L claudere=shut
    1. close (v): move so as to cover an opening; 靠近的kàojìndekao
    2. close: only a short distance away; 近的jìn, 旁边pánbiān
    3. enclose: surround or close off on all sides; 围绕wéirào
    4. disclose: make secret known; 显露xiǎnlù
    5. closet: a cupboard or wardrobe; 壁橱bìchú; 衣橱yīchú
  3. tain =keep; contain <L. con- =altogether +tener=hold
    1. contain: have or hold sth within; 容纳róngnà, 含有hányǒu
    2. maintain: cause or enable to continue; 维持wéichí
    3. entertain: provide sb with amusement; 款待kuǎndài
    4. obtain: get, acquire or secure sth; 获得huòdé, 取得qǔdé
    5. retain: continue to have sth, keep possession 0f; 保留bǎoliú, 保持bǎochí
    6. sustain: support physically or mentally; 维持wéichí, 持续chíxù
    7. detain: keep sb from proceeding by holding them back; 拘留jūliú
    8. abstain: retain oneself from doing sth, decline to vote; 戒除jièchú, 弃权qìquán
  4. rect =right; correct <L. cor- =together+ regere =guide
    1. correct: free from error, in accordance with fact; 正确的zhèngquè
    2. direct: moving from one place to another without changing direction; 直的zhíde, 直接的zhíjiē
    3. erect: put together or set upright (structure); 直立zhílì, 竖起shùqǐ
    4. rectangle: a plane figure with four straight sides and four right angles; 长方形chángfāngxíng
    5. rectify: put right, correct; 改正gǎizhèng, 修复xiūfù
  5. count <L. comoputare =compute
    1. count: determine the total number of; 数数shǔshù, 计算jìsuàn
    2. counter: speak or act in opposition to; 反驳bǎnbó
    3. account: a report or description of an event or experience; 账户zhànghù
    4. accountant: a person whose job is to keep financial accounts; 会计kuàijì
    5. discount: a deduction from the usual cost of sth; 折扣zhékòu
 
  116
  1. current
  2. describe
  3. dialogue
  4. dictionary
  5. distance
  1. cure =run <L. currere =run
    1. current: belonging to the present time; 现在的xiànzài
    2. curriculum: the subjects comprising a course of study in a school; 课程kèchéng
    3. cursor: a movable indicator on a computer screen identifying the point; 光标guāngbiāo
    4. excursion: a short journey, especially one taken as a leisure; 远足yuǎnzú
    5. occur: happen, take place; 发生fāshēng, 出现chūxiàn
    6. incur: become subject to sth unwelcome as a result of one's won behavior; 招致zhāozhì
    7. recur: occur again periodically or repeatedly; 再现zàixiàn
  2. scribe =write
    1. describe: give a detailed account in words of: 描述miáoshù
    2. prescribe: advise and authorize the use of a medicine for sb; 嘱咐zhǔfù
    3. inscribe: write or carve words on sth, especially as a formal record; 题写tíxiě
    4. transcript: a written or printed version of material; 抄本chāoběn
    5. script: handwriting as distinct from print; 剧本jùběn
  3. log =speak
    1. dialogue: a conversation between two as a feature of a book, play; 对话duìhuà
    2. monologue: a long speech by one actor in a play or film; 独白dúbái
    3. prologue: a separate introductory section of a literacy, dramatic book; 序言xùyán
    4. catalogue: a complete list of items, in alphabetical or other systematic order; 目录mùlù
    5. apology: a regretful acknowledgment of an offence or failure; 道歉dàoqiàn
    6. logic: reasoning conducted or assessed according to strict principle of validity;
  4. dict =say <L. dictum =saying
    1. dictionary: a book that lists the words of a language; 词典cídiǎn
    2. dictate: state or oder authoritatively; 口述kǒushù
    3. predict: say or estimate that will happen in the future; 预言yùyán
    4. contradict: deny the truth of by asserting the opposite; 反驳fǎnbó
    5. verdict: a decision on an issue of fact in a civil or criminal case; 裁决cáijué
  5. stance =standing <L. distare =standing apart
    1. distance: the length of the space between two points; 距离jùlí
    2. circumstance: a fact or condition connected with an event or action; 状况zhuàngkuàng
    3. substance: a particular kind of matter with uniform properties; 东西dōngxi, 物质wùzhì
    4. stance: the way in which sb stands, a person's posture; 态度tàidu
    5. instance: an example or single occurrence of sth; 情况qíngkuàng
    6. instant: happening or coming immediately; 紧急的jǐnjíde
    7. constant: occurring continuously over a period of time; 持续的chixù, 不变的bùbiàn
 
  117
  1. divert
  2. effect
  3. elect
  4. event
  5. export
  6. fact
  1. vert =turn <L. vertere =turn
    1. divert: cause sb or sth to change course; 转向zhuǎnxiàng;
    2. avert: turn away one's eyes or thoughts; 防止fángzhǐ
    3. convert: change into sth else 转变 zhuǎnbiàn
    4. advertise: describe or draw attention to in a public medium; 公布gōngbù, 广告guǎnggào
  2. fect =make, do <L. facere =do
    1. effect: a change which is a result of an action; 结果jiéguǒ
    2. affect: have an effect on, make a difference to; 影响yǐngxiǎng
    3. infect: affect a person with a disease causing organism; 传染chuánrǎn
    4. perfect: having all the required or desirable elements; 完美的wánměi
    5. defect: a shortcoming, imperfection or lack; 瑕疵xiácī, 缺陷quēxiàn
  3. lect =choose <OE. ceosan
    1. elect: choose sb to hold public office or position; 选举xuǎnjǔ, 选择xuǎnzé
    2. collect: bring or gather together a number of things; 收集shōjípp
    3. select: carefully choose as being the best or most suitable; 挑选tiāoxuǎn
    4. neglect: fail to care for properly; 忽视hūshì
    5. intellect: the faculty of reasoning and understanding objectively; 智力zhìlì
    6. lecture: an educational talk to an audience; 讲座jiǎngzuò
  4. vent =come <L. venire =come
    1. event: a thing that happens or takes place; 事件shìjiàn
    2. prevent: keep sth from happening; 阻止zǔzhǐ
    3. invent: create or design sth that has not existed before; 发明fāmíng
    4. convention: a way in which sth is usually done, a large meeting or conference; 大会dàhuì
    5. intervention: the action or process o intervening; 干涉gānshè
    6. adventure: an unusual and exciting experience; 冒险mòxiǎn
    7. venture: a risky or daring journey or undertaking; 探索tànsuǒ, 企业qǐyè
  5. port =carry <L. portare =carry
    1. export: send goods or services to another country for sale; 出口chūkǒu
    2. import: bring goods or services from abroad for sale; 进口jìnkǒu [输入shūrù =bring in]
    3. report: give a spoken or written account of sth; 报告bàogào
    4. sport: an activity involving physical exertion and skill for entertainment; 运动yùndòng
    5. support: bear all or part of the weight of, hold up; 支持zhīchí
    6. transport: take or carry people or goods from one place to another; 运输yùnshū
    7. portable: able to be easily carried or moved because of being lighter and smaller; 携带的xiédàide
    8. porter: a person employed to carry luggage and other loads; 行李员xíngliyuán
  6. fact =make <L. facere =do
    1. fact: a thing that is known or proved to be true; 事实shìshí
    2. factory: a building where goods are manufactured or assembled by machine; 工厂gōngchǎng
    3. factor: a circumstance, fact or influence that contributes to a result; 因素yīnsù
    4. faculty: an inherent mental or physical power; 官能guānnéng
    5. facsimile: and exact copy of written or printed material; 摹本móběn
    6. manufacture: make sth on a large scale using machinery; 大量生产dàliàng shēngchǎn
    7. benefactor: a person who give money or other help to a person; 赞助人zànzhù rén
 
  118
  1. final
  2. form
  3. generate
  4. graph
  5. host

 

  1. fin =end <L. finis =end
    1. final: coming at the end of a series; 最后的zuìhòude
    2. fine: of very high quality; 极好的jíhǎode
    3. fine: a sum of money exacted as a penalty by authority; 罚款fákuǎn [<L. a sum paid on settling a lawsuit]
    4. finish: bring to an end, complete; 结束jiéshù
    5. finance: the management of large amounts of money, monetary resources; 资金zījīn
    6. define: state or describe exactly the nature, meaning of; 定义dìngyì
    7. confine: keep or restrict sb or sth within certain limits of space or tine; 禁闭jìnbì
    8. infinite: limitless or endless in space, extent; 无限的wúxiànde
    9. refine: remove impurities or unwanted elements from a substance; 改进gǎijìn
  2. form <L. forma =form
    1. form: the visible shape or configuration of sth; 形状xíngzhuàng
    2. formal: done in accordance with convention or etiquette; 正式的zhèngshìde
    3. formula: mathematical relationship or rule express in symbols; 公式gōngshì
    4. uniform: remaining the same in all cases and at all times; 均匀地jūnyúnde
    5. reform: make changes in sth in order to improve it; 改良gǎiliáng
    6. transform: make a marked change in the form, nature or appearance; 改变gǎibiàn
    7. inform: give sb facts or information, tell; 通知tōngzhī
    8. conform: comply with rules, standards or laws; 遵从zūncóng
  3. gen =birth <L. generare =create
    1. generate: produce or create; 生成shēngchéng
    2. generation: all of the people born and living at about the same time; 同代人dóngdài rén
    3. general: affecting or concerning all or most people or thing; 普遍的pǔbiànde
    4. generous: showing a readiness to give more of sth; 慷慨的kāngkǎide
    5. gentle: having or showing a mild, kind or tender character; 温柔的wēnróude
    6. genuine: truly what sth is said to be; authentic; 真的zhēnd, 纯的chúnde
    7. genius: exceptional intellectual or creative power; 天才tiāncái
    8. gene: a unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring; 基因jīyīn
  4. graph <G. graphe =writing
    1. graph: a diagram showing the relation between variable quantities; 图表tubiǎo
    2. photograph: a picture made using a camera; 照片zhàopiàn
    3. paragraph: a distinct section of a piece of writing; 段落duànluò
    4. telegraph: a system for transmitting messages from a distance along a wire; 电报diànbào
    5. geography: the study of the physical features of the earth and human activity; 地理学dìlǐxué
    6. biography: an account of sb's life written by sb else; 传记zhuànjì
    7. autobiography: an account of a person's life written by that person; 自传zìzhuàn
    8. autograph: a signature, written as a memento for an admirer; 亲笔签名qīnbǐ qiānmíng
  5. host <hospit =host, guest
    1. host: a person who receives or entertains other people as guests; 主人zhǔrén
    2. hostel: an establishment which provides inexpensive food and lodging; 招待所zhāodàisuǒ
    3. hotel: an establishment providing accommodation, meals for tourists; 旅馆lǚguǎn
    4. hospital: an institution providing medial and surgical treatment; 医院yīyuàn
    5. hospitality: the friendly and generous reception and entertainment of guests; 款待kuǎndài
    6. hospice: a home providing care for the sick or terminally ill; 临终安养院ānyǎngyuàn
    7. hostage: a person seized as security for the fulfillment of a condition;人质rénzhì
 
  119
  1. labor
  2. manual
  3. medium]
  4. minute
  5. motion
  1. labor <L. laborare =labour
    1. labor: work, especially physical work; 劳动láodòng
    2. laboratory: a room or building equipped for scientific experiments; 实验室shíyànshì
    3. elaborate: develop or present a theory, policy in further detail; 精密的jīngmìde
    4. collaborate: work jointly on an activity or project; 合作hézuò
  2. man =hand <L. manus =hand
    1. manual: relating to or done with the hands; 手的shǒude
    2. manufacture: make sth on a large scale using machinery; 大量生产shēngchǎn <manu factum =made by hand
    3. manage: be in charge of, run; succeed in achieving sth; 应付yìngfù, 经营jīngyíng
    4. manner: a way in which a thing is done or happens; 方式fāngshì
    5. manuscript: a book or document written by hand rather than typed; 手抄本shǒuchāo běn
    6. manifest: clear or obvious to the eye or mind; 明显的míngxiǎnde
    7. maneuver: a movement requiring skill and care; 操纵cāozòng
  3. medi =middle <L. medius =middle
    1. medium: an agency or means of doing sth; 媒介méijiè
    2. medieval: relating to the Middle Ages; 中世纪的zhōngshìjì
    3. Mediterranean: of the Mediterranean Sea; 地中海的dìzhōng hǎide
    4. mediate: intervene in a dispute in order to bring about an agreement; 调解tiáojiě
    5. immediate: occurring or done at once, instant; 立即的lìjíde
    6. intermediate: coming between two thins in time, place; 中间的zhōngjiāngde
  4. min <minus =less
    1. minute: a period of time equal to 60 seconds; 分fēn
    2. minute: extremely small; 微小的wēixiǎode
    3. minor: lesser in importance, or significance; 较小的jiàoxiǎo
    4. minium: the least or smallest amount; 最少量zuìshǎo liàng
    5. minus: with the subtraction of, below zero by; 减去jiǎnqù
    6. minister: a head of a government department;
    7. diminish:
  5. mot =move <L. movere
    1. motion: the action or process of moving or being moved; 运动yùndòng
    2. motor: a machine powered by electricity; 电动机diàndòngjī
    3. motive: a reason for doing sth; 动机dòngjī
    4. locomotive: a powered railway vehicle used for pulling trains; 火车头huǒchētóu
    5. promote: support or actively encourage; 促进cùjìn
    6. remote: situated far from the main centres of population; 遥远的yáoyuǎnde
    7. emotion: a strong feeling deriving from one's circumstances, mood; 情绪qíngxù
 
  120
  1. mount
  2. offer
  3. office
  4. part
  5. pass
  1. mount =mountain <OF. mont
    1. mount: climb up rising surface; 登上dēngshang
    2. mountain: the highest or uppermost point, part or surface; 山shān
    3. amount: a quantity of sth especially the total of things in number; 数量shùliàng
    4. paramount: more important than anything else; 首要的shǒuyàode
    5. surmount: overcome a difficulty or obstacle; 克服kèfú
  2. fer =carry; offer <L. offerre =bestow, present
    1. offer: present sth for sb to accept; 提出tíchu, 提供tígōng
    2. prefer: like a thing or person better than others; 较喜欢jiào xǐhuan
    3. refer: mention or allude to, pass a matter to; 提及tíjí
    4. suffer: experience or be subjected to sth bad or unpleasant; 遭受zāoshòu, 受苦shòukǔ
    5. transfer: move from one place to another; 转移zhuǎnyí
    6. differ: be unlike or dissimilar; 有区别yǒu qūbié
    7. confer: have discussions, exchange opinions; 授予shòuyǔ
    8. infer: deduce or conclude sth from evidence and reasoning; 推理tuīlǐ
    9. fertile: (of soil) producing abundant vegetation or crops; 肥沃的féiwò
  3. fic =make, do <L. facere =do
    1. office: a room or building uses as a place of business; 办公室bàngōngshì
    2. difficult: needing much effort or skill to accomplish, deal with; 困难的kùnnande
    3. artificial: made by human beings rather than occurring naturally; 人造的rénzào
    4. deficit: the amount by which a sum of money is too small; 赤字chìzì
    5. efficient: (of a system) achieving maximum productivity with minimum wasted effort; 效率高的xiàolǜ gāode
    6. sacrifice: an act of slaughtering an animal as an offering to a deity; 献祭xiànjì, 牺牲xīshēng
    7. sufficient: enough, adequate; 充足的chōngzú
    8. fiction: literature in the form of prose that describes imaginary events; 小说xiǎoshuō
  4. part <L. partiri =devide, share
    1. part: an amount or section which makes up the whole of sth; 部分bùfen
    2. party: a social gathering of invited guests; 聚会jùhuì, 团体tuántǐ
    3. partner: a person who takes part in an undertaking with others; 合伙人héhuǒrén, 伙伴huǒbàn
    4. particular: used to single out an individual member of a specified group; 特别的tèbiéde
    5. participate: be involved, take part; 参加cānjiā
    6. partial: existing only in part; incomplete; 部分的bùfen
    7. particle: a minute portion of matter; 颗粒kēlì, 粒子lìzǐ
    8. apart: separated by a specified distance in time or space; 相隔xiānggé
    9. apartment: a flat, a suite of rooms forming one residence; 套间tàojiān
    10. department: a division of a large organization; 部门bùmén
  5. pass =send <F. pas =pass
    1. pass: a route over or through mountains; 通过tōngguò, 经过jīngguò
    2. past: gone by in time and no longer existing; 通过tōngguò
    3. passage: the action or process of moving through; 通道tōngdào, 推移tuīyí
    4. passenger: a traveller on a public or private conveyance other than the driver; 旅客lǚkè
    5. passport: an official document issued by a government entitling to travel to foreign countries; 护照hùzhào
    6. bypass: a road passing round to provide an alternative route for through traffic; 旁路pánglù
    7. trespass: enter sb's land or property without permission; 擅自进入shànzì jìnrù
    8. surpass: exceed, be greater than; 胜过shèngguo
 
  121
  1. permit
  2. press
  3. prime
  4. proceed
  5. progress
  1. mit =send <L. mittere =send, let go
    1. permit: officially allow sb to do sth; 准许zhǔnxǔ, 使用可能shǐyǒu kǔnéng
    2. admit: confess to be true or to be the case; 承认chénrèn
    3. commit: perpetrate or carry out (a mistake, crime, etc.); 犯fàn
    4. emit: produce and discharge sth (gas or radiation); 排除páichū, 发出fāchū
    5. omit: leave out or exclude sb or sth, intentionally or forgetfully; 删除shānchú, 漏掉lòudiào
    6. submit: accept or yield to a superior force; 认输rènshū, 投降tóuxiáng
    7. transmit: cause sth to pass on from one place to another; 传播chuánbō, 输送shūsòng
    8. committee: a group of people appointed for a specific function; 委员会wěiyuánhuì
  2. press =push <L. praestare =provide
    1. press: move into a position of contact with sth by continuous physical force; 按àn, 压紧yājǐn
    2. express: covey a thought in words or by gestures and conduct; 表达biǎodá, 表示biǎoshì
    3. impress: make sb fee admiration and respect; 留下好印象liúxia hǎoyìnxiàng
    4. repress: subdue sb or sth by force; 镇压zhènyā, 压抑yāyì
    5. suppress: forcibly put an end to; 镇压zhènyā, 阻止zǔzhǐ
    6. oppress: keep sb in subjection and hardship; 压迫yǎpò
    7. depress: make sb feel utterly dispirited, push down into a lower position; 降低jiàndī
    8. compress: flatten by pressure, squeeze or press; 压缩yāsuō
  3. prim =first <L. primus =first
    1. prime: of first importance, main; 首要的shǒuyào, 最好的zuìhǎo
    2. primary: of chief importance, principal; 主要的zhǔyào, 最初的zhìchū
    3. primitive: relating to or preserving the character of an early state; 原始的yuánshǐde
    4. prince: the son of a monarch; 王子wángzǐ
    5. principal: first in order of importance, main; 最重要的zuì zhòngyào, 校长xiàozhǎng
    6. principle: a fundamental truth or proposition as the foundation for a system; 原则yuánzé, 原理yuánlǐ
  4. ceed =go <L. cedere =go
    1. proceed: begin a course of action; 继续jìxù, 进展jìnzhǎn
    2. succeed: achieve the desired aim or result; 成功chénggōng
    3. exceed: be greater in number or size than a quantity; 超过chāoguò, 超越chāoyuè
    4. precede: come before sth in time; 先于xiānyú
    5. recede: go or move back or further away from a previous position; 后退hòutuì
  5. gress =go <L. gradi =walk
    1. progress: forward movement towards a destination; 进步jìnbù, 发展fāzhǎn
    2. regress: return to a former or less developed state; 回归huíguī, 倒退dàotuì
    3. congress: a formal meeting for discussion between delegates; 代表大会dàibiǎo dàhuì
    4. aggressive: ready or likely to attack or confront; 好斗的hàodòude
 
  122
  1. promise
  2. propose
  3. prospect
  4. protest
  5. receive
  1. mis =sent <L. mittere =send
    1. promise: assure sb that one will definitely do sth; 承诺chénnuò
    2. dismiss: order or allow to leave send away; 不予考虑bùyǔ kǎolǜ, 解雇jiěgù
    3. missile: an object which is forcibly propelled at a target by weapon; 导弹dǎodàn
    4. mission: an important assignment given to a person, involving travel abroad; 重要任务zhòngyào rènwu
  2. pose =place <L. propositus =put or set forth
    1. propose: put forward a plan or suggestion for consideration by others; 提出tíchū, 打算dǎsuàn
    2. purpose: the reason for which sth is done or created; 目的mùdì
    3. suppose: think or assume that sth is true or probable but lack proof; 认为renwei, 假定jiǎdìng
    4. expose: make sth visible by uncovering it; 暴露bàolù
    5. impose: force an unwelcome decision on sb; 强制实行qiángzhì shíxíng
    6. oppose: disagree with and attempt to prevent by argument; 反对fǎnduì
    7. compose; write or create a work of art; 组成zǔchéng, 创作zhuànzuò
    8. dispose: arrange in a particular position; 布置bùzhì
    9. pose: present or constitute a problem; pretend to be; 摆姿势bǎi zīshì, 假装jiǎzhuāng
    10. position: a place where sb or sth is located or has been put; 位置wèizhi
    11. depose: remove from office suddently and forcefully; 废黜fèichù
    12. juxtapose: place or deal with close together for contrasting effect; 并列bìngliè
  3. spect =see <L. specere =look
    1. prospect: the possibility of some future event occurring; 希望xīwàng
    2. respect: a feeling of deep admiration for sb or sth; 尊敬zūnjìng
    3. inspect: look at sb or sth closely to assess their condition; 检查jiǎnchá
    4. suspect: have an idea or impression of the existence or truth of sth; 推测tuīcè
    5. aspect: a particular part or feature of sth; 部分bùfen, 方面fāngmiàn
    6. expect: regard sth as likely to happen; 预计yùjì, 要求yāoqiú
    7. perspective: the art of representing 3D objects on a 2D surface; 透视法tòushìfǎ
    8. spectacle: a visually striking performance or display; 演出yǎnchū, 奇观qíguān
    9. spectator: a person who watches at a show, game; 观众guānzhòng
    10. spectrum: a band of colors produced by separation of the light; 光谱guāngpǔ
  4. test =witness <L. testis =witness
    1. protest: a statement or action expressing disapproval of sth; 抗议kàngyì
    2. contest: an event in which people compete for supremacy in activity; 比赛bǐsài
    3. testify: give evidence as a witness in a law court; 作证zuòzhèng
    4. testimony: a formal written or spoken statement; 证词zhèngcí
  5. ceive =take <L. capere =take
    1. receive: be given, presented with or paid sth; 接受jiēshòu
    2. conceive: form or devise a plan or idea in the mind; 想出xiǎngchū
    3. perceive: become aware or conscious of sth; 察觉chájué
    4. deceive: deliberately cause sb to believe sth that is not true; 欺骗qīpiàn
 
  123
  1. record
  2. reject
  3. reply
  4. resume
  5. reverse
  1. cord <L. =heart
    1. record: a thing constituting a piece of evidence about the past; 记录jìlù
    2. accord: give or grant sb (power, status, recognition); 一致yìzhì
    3. courage: the ability to do sth that frightens one, bravery; 勇气yǒngqì
    4. cordial; warm and friendly; 热情有好的rèqíng yǒuhǎo
  2. ject =throw <L. jacere =throw
    1. reject: dismiss as inadequate, unacceptable; 拒绝jùjué
    2. subject: a person or thing that is being discussed, described; 主题zhǔtí
    3. project: an individual enterprise that is carefully planned to achieve; 项目xiàngmù, 任务rènwu
    4. object: (v) say sth to express one's opposition to; 反对fǎnduì
    5. object: (n) a material thing that can be sen and touched; 物品wùpǐn, 对象duìxiàng
    6. inject: introduce (a liquid) into the body with a syringe; 引入yǐnrù, 投入tóurù
    7. eject: force or throw sth out in a violent or sudden way; 喷射pēnshè, 弹出tánchū
    8. adjective: a word naming an attribute of a noun; 形容词xíngróngcí
  3. ply =fold <L. plicate =fold
    1. reply: say sth in response to sth sb has said; 答复dáfù
    2. apply: make a formal application or request; 申请shēnqǐng
    3. imply: indicate the truth or existence of sth by suggestion; 暗示ànshì
    4. multiply: obtain from another which contains a specified number of times; 乘chéng, 增长zēngzhǎng
  4. sume =take
    1. resume: begin again or continue after a pause; 继续jìxù
    2. assume: suppose to be the case without proof; 假定jiǎdìng
    3. consume: eat, drink, or ingest; buy goods or services; 耗尽hàojìn
    4. presume: suppose that sth is the case on the basis of probability; 推测tuīcè
  5. verse =turn <L. vertere =turn
    1. reverse: move backwards, make sth the opposite of; 相反情况xiāngfǎn qíngkuàng
    2. diverse: showing a great deal of variety; 多种多样的duōzhǒng duōyàng
    3. adverse: preventing success or development, harmful; 不利的bùlìde
    4. conversation: a talk between two or more people; 谈话tánhuà; <L con- +with +vertere =turn
    5. controversy: prolonged public disagreement or heated discussion; 争论zhēnglùn
    6. anniversary: the date on which an event took place in a previous year; 周年纪念日zhōunián jìniànrì
    7. version: a particular form of sth differing from an earlier form; 版本bǎnběn
 
  124
  1. sense
  2. sentence
  3. sign
  4. simple
  5. stand
  1. sense =feek
    1. sense: a faculty by which the body perceives an external stimulus; 感官gǎnguān, 感觉gǎnjué
    2. sensible: done or chosen in accordance with wisdom; 明智的míngzhì
    3. sensitive: quick to detect or respond to slight changes; 敏感的mǐngǎnde
    4. sensation: a physical feeling or perception; 感觉gǎnjué
    5. consensus: a general agreement; 一致意见yzhì yìjiàn
  2. sent =feel <K, sebture =feel, be of the opinion
    1. sentence: a set of words that is complete in itself; 句子juzi
    2. sentiment: a view or opinion that is held or expressed; 情绪qíngxù
    3. scent: a distinctive smell, especially one that is pleasant; 香味xiāngwèi, 气味qìwèi
    4. consent: permission for sth to happen or agreement to do sth; 同意tóngyì
    5. dissent: holding or expression of opinions at variance with those commonly held; 异议yìyì
    6. resent: feel bitterness or indignation at; 愤恨fènhèn
    7. assent: express approval or agreement; 同意tóngyì
  3. sign <L. signum =mark, token
    1. sign: sth regarded as an indication of what is happening; 符号fúhào, 征兆zhengzhào
    2. signal: a gesture, action, sound that is used to convey information; 信号xìnhào
    3. signature: a person's name written as a form of identification; 签名qianmíng
    4. significant: sufficiently great or important to be worthy of attention; 重要的zhòngyào
    5. signify: be an indication, a symbol of; 表示biǎoshì, 表明biǎomíng
    6. assign: allocate a job or duty; 分配fēnpèi; 把...归于bǎ.. guīyú
    7. design: decide upon the look and functioning of (a building or other object); 设计shèjì
    8. designate: appoint sb to a specified office or post; 命名mìngmíng, 指定zhǐdìng
    9. resign: voluntarily leave a job or office; 辞职cízhí
  4. -ple, -ply=fold; simple
    1. simple: easily understood or done; 简单jiǎndān
    2. triple: consisting of three items or people; 三重的sānchóng
    3. multiple: having or involving several parts, elements; 倍数bèishù, 多重的duōchóng
    4. complex: consisting of many different parts; 复杂的fùzá
    5. perplex: make feel completely baffled; 使困惑shi kùnhuò
  5. sta = stand; <L. stare
    1. stand: have or maintain an upright position supported by one's feet; 站立zhànlì
    2. stage: a point, period or step in a precess or development; 舞台wǔtái
    3. station: a place on a railway line where trains regularly stop; 火车站huǒchē zhàn
    4. state: particular condition that sb or sth is in a specific time; sat状况zhuàngkuàng
    5. status: relative social or professional position; 地位dìwèi
    6. stable: not likely to give way or overturn, firmly fixed; 稳定的wěndìng
    7. statue: a carved or cast figure of a person or animal; 雕像diāoxiàng, 塑像sùxiàng
    8. establish: set up on a firm or permanent basis; 创立chuànglì
    9. obstacle: a thing that blocks one's way; 障碍zhàng'ài
 
  125
  1. structure
  2. tend
  3. term
  4. text
  5. torture
  1. struct =build; structure <L. struere =build
    1. structure: the arrangement of and relations between the parts or elements; 结构jiégòu, 建筑物
    2. restructure: organize differently; convert into another kind or debt
    3. construct: build or make sth; 建造jiànzào, 制造zhìzào
    4. destruction: action or process of causing so much damage to sth; 破坏pòhuài, 消灭xiāomiè
    5. obstruct: block path; prevent or hinder; 阻挡zǔdǎng, 阻塞zǔsè
    6. instruct: tell or order sb to do sth; 教导jiàodǎo, 训练xùnliàn
    7. instrument: a tool or implement for precision work; 器械qìxiè
  2. tend =stretch <L. tendere =stretch
    1. tend: regularly behave in a particular way; 倾向qīngxiàng
    2. attend: be present at an event or function, plan; 参加cānjiā;
    3. intend: have a course of action as one's purpose; 想要xiǎngyào, 计划jìhuà
    4. extend: cause to cover a wider area; 扩大kuòdà, 延长yáncháng
    5. contend: struggle to surmount a difficulty; 斗争dòuzhēng, 竞争jìngzhēng
    6. pretend: behave so as to make it appear that sth is the case; 假装jiǎzhuāng, 自称zìchēng
    7. tender: offer or present sth formally; 提出tíchū
  3. term =limit <L. terminus =end, boundary, limit
    1. term: a word or phrase used to describe a thing; 术语shùyǔ
    2. terminal: forming at the end or extremity of sth; 终点的zhōngdiǎn
    3. terminate: bring to an end; 终止zhōngzhǐ
    4. determine: firmly decide; 确定quèdìng
    5. exterminate: destroy completely; 消灭xiāomiè, 灭绝mièjué
  4. text =woven <L. texere =woven
    1. text: a book or other written work; 文本wénběn, 原文yuánwén
    2. textile: a type of cloth or woven fabric; 纺织品fǎngzhīpǐn
    3. texture: feel, appearance of a surface or a substance; 手感shǒugǎn, 质地zhìdì
    4. context: the circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement; 环境huánjìng, 上下文
    5. pretext: a reason given in justification of a course of action; 借口jièkǒu
  5. torture; tort =twist
    1. torture: action of inflicting sever pain on sb as a punishment; 酷刑kùxíng, 折磨zhémó
    2. tortoise: a slow-moving herbivorous land reptile or warm climate; 陆龟lùguī, Cf: 海龟hǎi =turtle
    3. distort: pull or twist out of shape; 歪曲wāiqū, 曲解qūjiě
    4. retort: say sth in answer to a remark in a sharp, or angry manner; 反驳fǎnbó
 
  126
  1. unite
  2. vist
  3. survive

 

 

  1. uni =one; unite
    1. unite: come together for a common purpose or action; 联合liánhé, 团结tuánjié
    2. unique: being the only one of its kind, unlike anything else; 唯一的wéiyī, 独特的dútè
    3. unit: an individual thing or person regarded as single and complete; 单元dānyuán, 单位dānwèi
    4. unity: the state of forming a complete and harmonious whole; 统一tǒngyī, 一致yīzhì
    5. unify: make or become united, or joined as a whole; 统一tǒngyī
    6. universe: all existing matter & space as a whole; 宇宙yǔzhòu
    7. unanimous: fully in agreement, held by everyone involved; 意见一致的yìjiàn yīzhì
  2. vis = see; visit
    1. visit: go to see and spend time with sb socially; 访问fǎngwèn
    2. visible: able to be seen; 看得见的kàndejiàn, 明显的míngxiǎn
    3. vision: faculty or state of being able to see; 视力shìlì, 想象xiǎngxiàng
    4. visual: relating to seeing or sight; 视觉的shìjué
    5. visa: an endorsement on passport indicating the holder is allowed to enter or leave; 签证qiānzhèng
    6. revise: reconsider in the light of further evidence; 修改xiūgǎi, 校正jiàozhèng
    7. supervise: observe and direct the execution of; 管理guǎnlǐ, 监督jiāndū
    8. advise: offer suggestions about the best course of action; 劝告quàngào, 通知tōngzhī
  3. viv =live; vivid <L. vivere =live
    1. survive: continue to live or exit; 存留cúnliú, 遗存yícún
    2. revive: restore to life or consciousness; 复元fùyuán; 恢复huīfù
    3. vivid: producing powerful feelings or clear images in the mind; 鲜艳的xiānyàn, 生动的shēngdòng
 
 

>Top 103.2 English Hiaku:

127

English Haiku (英語で俳句)

 
  1. Japanese haiku has a long tradition, which is said the shortest literature with having almost strict five-seven-five syllables. But foreign language haiku cannot follow these syllables, but careful selection words enable the haiku to resonate with rhythm and senses.
    1. Japanese language consists the syllables of the pairs of a vowel and a consonant, which doesn't have any sound made solely of consonants, excepting the sound of 'n' at the end of syllables. This rule make difficult in foreign language to make conciseness of haiku.
  2. Also the season words (kigo) are often neglected in foreign haiku, probably due to the difference of the climate and culture in each country.
  3. On the contrary, themes and motifs which foreign authors deal with seem more diversified due to the different cultural, geographical and social situation. In some area, severe conflicts and battles are even now undertaken, which can produce such haiku:
    1. Mine field, dandelions cover, on both sides. 地雷原タンポポ両側進みゆく
    2. The ambulance nurse, gently attach the triage to each, winter sky. 野戦看護、トリアージ付け 冬の空
  4. 俳句の和訳
    1. 古池や 蛙飛び込む 水の音
    2. Old pond, Frog jump in, Sound of water
    3. The old pond, A frog jumps in, Plop! 
    4. The old pond, frogs jump into it, Splash!
    5. The ancient pond, a frog leaps in, the sound of the water (Donald Keene)
    6. Old pond - frogs jumped in - sound of water (Lafcadio Hearn)
    7. The old pond; A frog jumps in - The sound of the water. (Robert Aitken 禅の指導者)
    8. A sound of frog, jumping into water - the old pond. (L.P. Lovee)
      [切れ字のやによって古池は現実ではない閑寂境 (古池の心象)であるとする解釈]
    9. Old dark sleepy pool, quick unexpected frog, goes plop! Watersplash. (Peter Beilenson 俳句翻訳者)
    10. Sound is coming, from the world like death. Oh, a jumping-living is there. (Haiku Int'l Association)
 
  128
 
  1. 奥の細道: by Donald Keene
    1. 草の戸も住替る代ぞひなの家
      Even a thatched hut, may change with a new owner, into a doll's house.
    2. 行春や鳥啼魚の目は泪
      Spring is passing by!, Birds are weeping and the eyes of fish fill with tears. [fish-eye 魚眼レンス]
    3. あらたうと青葉若葉の日の光
      How awe-inspring! On the green leaves, the young leaves, the light of the sun.
    4. 剃捨て黒髪山に衣更 (曽良)
      I shaved off my hair, and now at Black Hair Mountain, it's time to change clothes. (Sora)
    5. 暫時は滝に籠るや夏の初
      For a little while, I'll shut myself inside the falls - Summer retreat has begun.
    6. かさねとは八重撫子の名成るべし (曽良)
      Double - that must be the name somebody gave to, a bouble-petalled pink.
    7. 夏山に足駄を拝む首途哉
      In summer mountains, I bow before his high clogs - My journeys's just began. [clogs 下駄]
    8. 木啄も庵はやぶらず夏木立
      Even woodpeckers do not harm this little hut, perched in summer trees. [perch 止まり木]
    9. 野を横に馬ひきむけよほととぎす
      Lead the horse sideways, across the meadows - I hear a nightingale. [ほととぎす= lesser cuckoo→郭公]
    10. 田一枚植て立去る柳かな
      They sowed a whole field, and only then did I leave Sigyo's willow tree.
      [道のべに清水流るる柳かげしばしとてこそ立ち止まりつれ - 西行]
    11. 卯の花をかざしに関の晴着かな (曽良)
      Springs of verbena, thrust in my cap - such will be my fancy attire. (Sora) [attire: 正装]
    12. 風流の初やおくの田植うた
      The true beginnings of poetry - an Oku Rice planting song.
    13. 世の人の見付ぬ花や軒の栗
      Blossoms unnoticed, by people of this world - chestnuts by the eaves.
    14. 早苗とる手もとや昔しのぶ摺
      Deft hands that now pluck, seedlings, once you used to press patterns from the stones. [plunk: hit abruptly ]
    15. 笈も太刀も五月にかざれ紙幟
      Sword and altar both display on boy's day in May, when paper banners fly.
    16. 笠島はいづこ五月のぬかり道
      Rainhat Island - where did you say it was? - muddy roads in May
    17. 武隈の松みせ申せ遅桜 (挙白)
      Let him see at least the pine of Takakuma, late-blooming cherry.
    18. 桜より松は二木を三月越し
      Since cherry-blossom time I've pined; now I see a twin pine, three months afterwards. [pine (v): 切望する]
    19. あやめ草足に結ん草鞋の緒
      I will bind iris blossoms round my feet - cords for my sandals!
    20. 松島や鶴に身をかれほととぎす (曽良)
      At Matsushima borrow your plumes from the crane - o nightingales! (Sora)
    21. 夏草や兵どもが夢の跡
      The summer grasses - 0f brave soldiers' dreams, the aftermath.
    22. 卯の花に兼房みゆる白毛かな (曽良)
      In the verbena I seem to see Kanefusa - behold his white hair! (Sora) [増尾兼房: 義経の老臣]
    23. 五月雨や降のこしてや光堂
      Have the rains of spring spared you from their onslaught, Shining hall of Gold?
    24. 蚤虱馬の尿する枕もと
      Plagued by fleas and lice, I hear the horses staling right by my pillow. [stale: urinate]
    25. 涼しさを我宿にしてねまる也
      Making the coolness, my abode, here I lie completely at ease. [abode: 逗留]
    26. 這出よかひやが下のいひきの声
      Come out, come crawling out - underneath the silkworm hut, the voice of a toad. [飼屋: 養蚕小屋]
    27. まゆはきを俤にして紅粉の花
      They make me recall a lady's powder puff - these saffron blossoms. [眉掃き: 小さな刷毛]
    28. 蚕飼する人は古代のすがた哉 (曽良)
      The people who tend the silkworms, maintain their ancient appearance. (Sora)
    29. 閑さや岩にしみ入蝉の声
      How still it is here - stinging into the stones, the locusts' trill. [sting: provoke sb to do; trill: 虫の声]
 
  129
 
  1. 奥の細道 (2):
    1. 五月雨をあつめて早し最上川
      Gathering seawards, the summer rains, how swift it is! Mogami River.
    2. 有難や雪をかほらす南谷
      So holy a place - the snow itself is scented at Southern Valley.
    3. 涼しさやほの三日月の羽黒山
      How cool it is here - A crescent moon faintly hovers over Mount Haguro.
    4. 雲の峰幾つ崩て月の山
      The peaks of clouds have crumbled into fragments - the moonlit mountain!
    5. 語られぬ湯殿にぬらす袂かな
      I cannot speak of Yudono, but see how wet may sleeve is with tears.
    6. 湯殿山銭ふる道の泪かな (曽良)
      Yudono Mountain - as I tread on pilgrims' coins, behold these my tears. (Sora) [behold: see & observe]
    7. あつみ山や吹浦かけて夕涼み
      From Hot Springs Mountain all the way to Blowing Bay - the cool of evening. [あつみ山=温海岳]
    8. 暑き日を海にいれたり最上川
      The burning sun, It has washed into the sea - Mogami River.
    9. 象潟や雨に西施がぬぶの花
      Kisakata - Seishi (Xīshī) sleeping in the rain, wet mimosa blossoms.
    10. 汐越や鶴はぎぬれて海涼し
      Tide-Crossing - the crane's long legs are wetted how cool the sea is!
    11. 象潟や料理何くふ神祭 (曽良)
      Kisakata - what special food do they eat at the festival? (Sora)
    12. 蜑の家や戸板を敷て夕涼 (低耳)
      A fisherman's hut - laying out their doors, they enjoy the cool of evening. (Teiji)
    13. 波こえぬ契ありてやみさごの巣
      Did they vow never to part till waves topped their rock? the nest of the ospreys. (Sora)
    14. 文月や六日も常の夜には似ず
      The seventh month - even the sixth does not seem, like a usual night. [七夕前夜]
    15. 荒海や佐渡によこたふ天河
      Turbulent the sea - across to Sado stretches, The Milky Way.
    16. 一家に遊女もねたり萩と月
      Under the same roof prostitutes were sleeping - the moon and clover.
    17. 早稲の香や分入右は有磯海
      Sweet-smelling rice fields! to our right as we push through, The Ariso Sea.
    18. 塚も動け我泣声は秋の風
      Shake your tomb, reply! My voice that weeps for you is the autumn wind.
    19. 秋涼し手毎にむけた瓜茄子
      The cool of autumn - every hand start peeling melons and eggplants!
    20. あかあかと日は難面もあきの風
      Redly, redly the sun shines heartlessly, but the wind is autumnal. [秋と飽き]
    21. しほらしき名や小松吹萩すすき
      What a charming name! The wind blows through little pines, Clover and susuki.
    22. むざんやな甲の下のきりぎりす
      Alas for mortality! underneath the helmet a grasshopper.
    23. 石山の石より白し秋の風
      Whiter, whiter than the stones of Stone Mountain - the autumnal wind.
    24. 山中や菊はたをらぬ湯の匂
      At Yamanaka no need to pick chrysanthemums - the scent of hot springs.
    25. 行々てたふれ伏すとも萩の原 (曽良)
      On, on I travel; though I fall and die, let it be in fields of clover. (Sora)
    26. 今日よりは書付消さん笠の露
      Today I shall wipe out the words written in my hat with the dew of tears. [書付: 乾坤無住 同行二人]
    27. 終宵秋風聞やうらの山 (曽良)
      All through the night I listened to the autumn wind in the hills behind. (Sora)
    28. 庭掃きて出ばや寺に散柳
      I'll sweep the garden before I leave - in the temple the willow-leaves fall.
    29. 終宵嵐に波をはこばせて月をたれたる汐越の松 (西行)
      All through the night the waves were driven by a storm
      that brought them shoreward;
      the moon shone suspended from the pines of Shiogoshi. (Saigyo)
    30. 物書て扇引さく余波哉
      I scribbled something, planning to tear up my fan - but parting was sad!
    31. 月清し遊行のもてる砂の上
      How pure the moonlight on the sand before the shrine brought by Pilgrim-Priests.
    32. 名月や北国日和定なき
      Night of the full moon! the weather in the north land is so uncertain.
    33. 寂しさや須磨にかちたる浜の秋
      How lonely it is! even lonelier than Suma, autumn at this beach.
    34. 浪の間や小貝にまじる萩の塵
      What do the waves bring? mixed in with little shells, bits of clover blossoms.
    35. 蛤のふたみにわかれ行秋ぞ
      Dividing like clam and shell, I leave for Futami - autumn is passing by.
    36. 願わくは花の下にて春死なむその如月の望月の頃 (西行)
      I want to die in spring in a bottom of Cherry flowers, in the days of a full moon of March. (Saigyo)
 
>HP Haiku

>Top 103.3 Speed Writing:

130